HEAD - Document Start Point!
CHAPTER 1 - Self-Control
|( P1 ) Sadly, Self-Control is an oxymoron for most people. Most people simply can not control their own self (their thoughts, words, and actions), at least not ALL of the time. Any time we loose control or have our decisions even partially affected by outside influences the machine of the world is running us. Increasing self-control of oneself will make it more likely and certainly easier to achieve one's aims. |
|1.1 - Resolution|
|1.2 - Decisions|
|1.3 - Will|
|1.3.1 - I will, I'll|
|1.3.2 - I will verb
I will be
I will be here at 5
I will get paid Friday,
I will do|
|1.4 - Identity|
|1.5 - What is the Self|
|1.6 - What is Control|
|( P2 ) power, strength, will, being, doing|
|1.7 - What is Self-Control|
|1.7.1 - Types|
|184.108.40.206 - Body - Fakir|
|220.127.116.11.1 - Usually Involves Hypnosis|
|18.104.22.168.2 - Control of Pain|
|22.214.171.124 - Emotional – religious|
|( P3 ) Involves obedience, obligation |
|126.96.36.199 - Intellectual – Yogi|
|188.8.131.52 - All Simultaneously – 4 th Way|
|1.7.2 - Manifistations|
|184.108.40.206 - Restraint|
|220.127.116.11.1 - ADD|
|18.104.22.168.2 - ADHD|
|22.214.171.124.3 - Stuttering|
|126.96.36.199.4 - Turrets Syndrome|
|188.8.131.52.5 - Parkinson's Disease|
|( P4 ) Dopamine |
|184.108.40.206.6 - Epilipsy|
|220.127.116.11.7 - THC Stoned|
|( P5 ) Dopamine |
|( P6 ) Lack of motivation, catatonia, forgetfulness |
|18.104.22.168 - Doing That Which is Unpleasant or Paintfull but Needed and Right|
|22.214.171.124 - Doing That Which We Do Not Want to Do but Do Anyway Because We Know We Need To|
|126.96.36.199.1 - Opposite is Procrastination|
|1.8 - The Beginning of the End|
|1.8.1 - Urges, Desires, Wants, ...|
|1.8.2 - Excuses, Reasons, Justification|
|1.9 - Examples of Self-Control of Body & Actions|
|( P7 ) always look at the sphincters
erection / impotence
nipples – cold, arousal, hormones
true smile, eyes, micro expressions
of erection hardness
|1.9.1 - Food Savor vs. Gulping like Dirty Dog|
|1.10 - The Inner Need for Self-determination (Control) for Survival|
|1.10.1 - rats – main infliction and how rats not alerted to impending shock resigned to fate and gave up|
|1.10.2 - kids react .... in face of unfair or harsh treatment or being unheard|
CHAPTER 2 - Objects of Self-Control
|1.11 - The Devastating Effects on Society by People who 'Loose Control' or 'Go Berserk' or 'Go Crazy' or 'Loose It'|
|2.1 - Right Though. Right Speech. Right Action.|
|2.1.1 - Right Thought|
|188.8.131.52 - Dwelling|
|184.108.40.206 - Worry|
|220.127.116.11 - Identification|
|18.104.22.168 - Account Making|
|22.214.171.124 - Intrusive, Unwanted Thoughts|
|126.96.36.199.1 - Repetative Sayings, Words, Songs|
|( P8 ) Eg. A song stuck in your head or a word that you keep 'repeating to yourself' or 'hearing' |
|2.1.2 - Right Speech|
|188.8.131.52 - Lies|
|184.108.40.206 - Gossip|
|220.127.116.11 - Talking to Fill Silence|
|18.104.22.168 - Lack of Speaking Up|
|2.1.3 - Right Action|
|22.214.171.124 - SC of body & actions|
|2.2 - Self-Control of Money|
|( P9 ) burning a hole in your pocket
rich vs poor
poor lotto winner is soon poor again
|2.3 - Self-Control of Eating|
CHAPTER 3 - Reflexes
|2.4 - Self-Control of Orgasm|
|2.4.1 - Mental Excitement Level|
|2.4.2 - Oxygen|
|2.4.3 - Hardness|
|2.4.4 - Rhythm Speed|
|( P10 ) Sexual response possible even with a transected spinal cord. |
|3.1 - Reflex|
|3.2 - Very Simple Nuerologically|
|( P11 ) A reflex action, also known as a reflex, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. |
|3.3 - Ipsilatteral Reflexes|
|3.4 - Contralatteral Reflexs|
|3.5 - Primitive Reflexes|
|( P12 ) Primitive reflexes (infantile, infant or newborn reflexes) are reflex actions originating in the central nervous system that are exhibited by normal infants but not neurologically intact adults, in response to particular stimuli. These reflexes disappear or are inhibited by the frontal lobes as a child moves through normal child development. |
|3.5.1 - Hand-to-mouth Reflex|
|3.5.2 - Moro Reflex|
|3.5.3 - Walking/Stepping Reflex|
|3.5.4 - Rooting Reflex|
|3.5.5 - Sucking Reflex|
|3.5.6 - Tonic Neck Reflex|
|126.96.36.199 - Asymmetric tonic neck reflex (ATNR) or tonic neck reflex|
|( P13 ) In infants up to four months of age, when the head is turned to the side, the arm on that side will straighten and the contralateral arm will bend. |
|188.8.131.52 - Symmetrical tonic neck reflex (STNR)|
|3.5.7 - Palmar Grasp Reflex|
|3.5.8 - Plantar Reflex|
|3.5.9 - Babinski Reflex|
|3.5.10 - Galant Reflex|
|3.5.11 - Swimming Reflex|
|3.5.12 - Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex|
|3.5.13 - Snout Reflex|
|3.5.14 - Glabellar Reflex|
|3.5.15 - Parachute Reflex|
|3.6 - Postural Reflexes|
|3.7 - Cardiovascular Reflexes|
|3.7.1 - Baroreflex|
|( P14 ) Baroreflex or baroreceptor reflex — homeostatic countereffect to a sudden elevation or reduction in blood pressure detected by the baroreceptors in the aortic arch, carotid sinuses, etc. |
|3.7.2 - Bainbridge Reflex|
|3.7.3 - Oculocardiac Reflex|
|3.7.4 - Blushing|
|3.8 - Cranial Nerve Reflexes|
|3.8.1 - Midbrain|
|184.108.40.206 - Pupillary Light Reflex|
|( P15 ) Pupillary light reflex — a reduction of pupil size in response to light. |
|220.127.116.11 - Accommodation Reflex|
|( P16 ) Accommodation reflex — coordinated changes in vergence, lens shape and pupil size when looking at a distant object after a near object. |
|3.8.2 - Pons/Medulla|
|18.104.22.168 - Jaw Jerk Reflex|
|22.214.171.124 - Corneal Reflex |
|126.96.36.199 - Caloric reflex test/Vestibulo-ocular reflex/Oculocephalic reflex|
|188.8.131.52 - Pharyngeal Reflex (gag reflex)|
|3.9 - Tendon Reflexes|
|3.9.1 - Biceps Reflex C5/C6|
|3.9.2 - Brachioradialis Reflex C6 |
|( P17 ) Brachioradialis reflex — a jerking of the forearm when the brachioradialis tendon is hit with a tendon hammer while the arm is resting, stimulating the C5 and C6 reflex arcs. |
|3.9.3 - Extensor Digitorum Reflex C6/C7|
|3.9.4 - Triceps Reflex C7/C8|
|3.9.5 - Patellar Reflex L2-L4 (knee jerk)|
|3.9.6 - Ankle Jerk Reflex S1/S2|
|( P18 ) Ankle jerk reflex — jerking of the ankle when the Achilles tendon is hit with a tendon hammer while the foot is relaxed, stimulating the S1 reflex arc. |
|3.9.7 - Plantar Reflex|
|3.10 - Other Reflexes|
|3.10.1 - Anocutaneous Reflex|
|3.10.2 - Bulbocavernosus Reflex|
|3.10.3 - Escape Reflex|
|3.10.4 - Mammalian Diving Reflex|
|3.10.5 - Photic Sneeze Reflex|
|3.10.6 - Scratch Reflex|
|3.10.7 - Stapedius Reflex (Acoustic Reflex or Attenuation Reflex)|
|( P19 ) Stapedius reflex — contraction of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in the middle ear in response to high sound intensities. |
|3.10.8 - H-reflex|
|3.10.9 - Stretch Reflex|
|3.10.10 - Golgi Tendon Reflex|
|3.10.11 - Muscular Defense|
|3.10.12 - Optokinetic|
|3.10.13 - Startle Reaction|
|3.10.14 - Withdrawal Reflex (Crossed extensor reflex)|
|3.10.15 - Cough Reflex|
|( P20 ) Cough reflex — a rapid expulsion of air from the lungs after sudden opening of the glottis, and usually following irritation of the trachea. |
|3.10.16 - Pupillary Accommodation Reflex|
|( P21 ) Pupillary accommodation reflex — a reduction of pupil size in response to an object coming close to the eye. |
|3.10.17 - Vestibulo-ocular Reflex|
|( P22 ) Vestibulo-ocular reflex — movement of the eyes to the right when the head is rotated to the left, and vice versa. |
|3.10.18 - Corneal reflex — blinking of both eyes when the cornea of either eye is touched.|
|3.10.19 - Shivering|
|( P23 ) Shivering — shaking of the body in response to early hypothermia in warm-blooded animals. |
|3.10.20 - Vagovagal Reflex|
|( P24 ) Vagovagal reflex — contraction of muscles in the gastrointestinal tract in response to distension of the tract following consumption of food and drink. |
|3.11 - Sexual Reflexes|
|3.11.1 - Cremasteric Reflex|
|( P25 ) Cremasteric reflex — elevation of the scrotum and testis elicited by stroking of the superior and medial part of the thigh. |
|3.11.2 - Orgasm / Ejaculation|
CHAPTER 4 - Instincts
|( P26 ) Processes such as breathing, digestion, and the maintenance of the heartbeat can also be regarded as reflex actions, according to some definitions of the term. |
|4.1 - An Instinct is a Complex Set or Pattern of Actions without Conscious Though|
|( P27 ) Instinct (innate behavior) is the inherent disposition of a living organism toward a particular behavior. The fixed action patterns are unlearned and inherited. The stimuli can can be variable due to imprinting in a sensitive period or also genetically fixed. Examples of instinctual fixed action patterns can be observed in the behavior of animals, which perform various activities (sometimes complex) that are not based upon prior experience, such as reproduction, and feeding among insects. Sea turtles, hatched on a beach, automatically move toward the ocean, and honeybees communicate by dance the direction of a food source, all without formal instruction. Other examples include animal fighting, animal courtship behavior, internal escape functions, and building of nests.
Instinctual actions - in contrast to actions based on learning which are served by memory and which provide individually stored successful reactions built upon experience - have no learning curve, they are hard-wired and ready to use without learning, but do depend on maturational processes to appear.
Biological predispositions are innate biologically vectored behaviors that can be easily learned. For example in one hour a baby colt can learn to stand, walk, and run with the herd of horses. Learning is required to fine tune the neurological wiring reflex like behavior. True reflexes can be distinguished from instincts by their seat in the nervous system; reflexes are controlled by spinal or other peripheral ganglion, but instincts are the province of the brain.
CHAPTER 5 - Will and Willpower
|4.2 - Examples of Instincts|
|( P28 ) Human traits that have been looked at as instincts are: sleeping, fairness, altruism, disgust, face perception, language acquisitions, "fight or flight" and "subjugate or be subjugated". |
|4.2.1 - Mating Instinct|
|4.2.2 - Child-Rearing Instincts|
|4.2.3 - Kin / Familial Instincts|
|184.108.40.206 - Protect Kin|
|220.127.116.11 - Don't Mate with Kin|
|4.2.4 - Wander-Lust|
|5.1 - Discipline, Regimine, Schedule, Habit, Pattern, Trained, Disciplined|
|5.2 - the amygdala|
|5.3 - Belief|
CHAPTER 6 - Conscious Willed Self-Determination
|5.4 - Why are Some Things 'Easy' to Do and Others 'Hard'?|
|( P29 ) Eg. Firing someone, Evicting, Breaking up, Studying all Day - All these are 'Hard' to do. People avoid them. |
CHAPTER 7 - How does it feel to 'Want'?
|6.1 - Intending to Do and Doing|
CHAPTER 8 - Aims / Goals / Resolutions / Decisions
|( P30 ) want, crave, like, dislike, prefer, our way, care for, desire, fancy, go for, hanker for, stuck on, crazy for, infatuated with |
CHAPTER 9 - Consciousness, Self-Consciousness, Awareness, Self-Awareness, Intelligence
|8.1 - Plans, Steps, Methods|
|9.1 - Consciousness: of Oneself, of Others, of Life|
|9.2 - Consciousness Increases only with Consious Effort|
|9.3 - Self-Awareness|
|9.3.1 - Self-Awareness is Demonstrated by:|
|( P31 ) Hunger, pain, discomfort, hot/cold, self-introspection, watching how oneself behaves, greed, pride, teritoriality, fear of strangers, fear of death. |
|9.4 - Tests of Levels of Awareness|
|9.4.1 - Exposure to Mirror with Marking on Forehead Test|
|9.4.2 - Partner Cooperation at Task|
|9.5 - Consciousness and Memory|
|9.5.1 - Loss of Memory = Unconscious ?|
|9.5.2 - Anasthetics|
|9.5.3 - Concussion|
|9.5.4 - Achoholic Blackouts|
|9.6 - How Would a Conscious Man Appear|
|( P32 ) A truly conscious individual would seem an 'idiot' or 'crazy' person to normal people since normal people are auto-matrons and are predictable reactionary whereas a conscious person with free will would act spontaneously and according to his aims, not according to predetermined patterns.
A developed man, to the real world would seem an Idiot, he does not react mechanically and reactionairily as do all other people but spontaneously.
|( P33 ) SC as affected by
Problem Solving ability
Attention, consciousness, intelligence (iq)
smart (also old meaning)
CHAPTER 10 - The Human Brain and Neural System
|( P34 ) Being Present |
|10.1 - Brain Physiology|
|10.1.1 - Physical Structure|
|10.1.1.1 - Layering - Bodily Nerve Ganglia, Spinal Cord, Brain Stem, Base Brain, Limbic System, Cortex, Pre-Frontal Lobes|
|10.1.1.2 - Amygdala|
|( P35 ) Fear center, creates inhibition for self-threatening behavior. |
|10.1.1.3 - Neocortex|
|10.1.1.3.1 - The Neocortex layer has 6 approximately equal height and well defind layers.|
|10.1.1.3.1.1 - The top layer is mostly axons and few cells. It contains no pyramidal cells.|
|10.1.1.3.2 - The Neocortex appears to be made of of columnular units.|
|10.1.1.4 - Pre-Frontal Cortex|
|( P36 ) Super-ego functions. In frontal lobotomies patients become zombies, they loose their personality, but they no longer complain that severe pain disturbs them. |
|( P37 ) Lead poisoning causes frontal lobe damage and in addition to diminished mental capability patients show increased propensity to criminal activity. |
|10.1.2 - Reticular Formation|
|10.1.2.1 - Alcohol Effects on Sleep and Dreaming|
|10.1.2.2 - Delerium Tremens|
|10.2 - The Triunal Brain|
|( P38 ) Our neo-cortex has taken over control of other brain areas for muscle movement. As a result the part of our brain that contols our facial muscles is now als othe seat of our persona. What this means, is that changing our mood is as simple as forcing a different facial expression. |
|( P39 ) Some sort of lesion or injection to mice cortex does not affect their behavior, while it paralizeses a human. |
|10.3 - Primordial Structures – The Evolution of Our Brain|
|10.3.1 - 2 Vision Pathways|
|10.3.1.1 - Multiple brains and vision w/o sight is visual cortex impaired|
|( P40 ) How the brain is layered with higher brain functions the last to develop (gestationally and evolutionarily). Control builds upward from instinctive animal base layers up into higher cortex and finally frontal lobes. |
|10.4 - Left and Right brain setup and synergy|
|10.4.1 - Left Hemisphere|
|10.4.2 - Right Hemisphere|
|10.4.3 - Verbal (conscious) / Visual|
|10.4.4 - We ARE Two People in One Body!|
|( P41 ) When the corpus callosum is cut, patients exhibit 2 separate 'selves'. Though only one can usually speak, the other can respond to visual pictorial questions and sometimes simple words and point to answer. |
|10.4.5 - Fine tune (conscious), coarse granular / Gross but fluid|
|10.4.5.1 - first learning of a skill / master artisan|
|10.4.6 - Left vs. Right Handedness|
|10.4.7 - Corpos Collosum|
|10.4.7.1 - Appears at age 2 years, same time as...|
|10.5 - Neural Networks|
|10.5.1 - Lots of Backward Propagation of Info|
|( P42 ) The human brain shows consistent use of feedback throughout all areas as a core-design-principle. *(R1) |
|10.6 - Efferent vs. Afferent|
|10.6.1 - Efferent|
|10.6.1.1 - Efferent Somatic Nerves carry messages to Volentairy Skeletal Muscles|
|10.6.1.2 - Efferent Autonomic Nerves carry messages to Involentairy Muscles, Cardiac Muscles, Smooth Muscles, & Glands.|
|( P43 ) In the nervous system, efferent nerves – otherwise known as motor or effector neurons – carry nerve impulses away from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles or gland. |
|10.6.2 - Afferent|
|10.6.2.1 - Afferent Somatic Nerves carry messages on Temperature, Touch, Pain|
|10.6.2.2 - Afferent Autonomic Nerves carry messages on Visceral info.|
|( P44 ) In the nervous system, afferent neurons--otherwise known as sensory or receptor neurons--carry nerve impulses from receptors or sense organs toward the central nervous system. |
|10.7 - Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic|
|10.7.1 - Sympathetic|
|( P45 ) The Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) is a branch of the autonomic nervous system along with the enteric nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system. It is always active at a basal level (called sympathetic tone) and becomes more active during times of stress. Its actions during the stress response comprise the fight-or-flight response. |
|10.7.2 - Parasympathetic|
|( P46 ) The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is a division of the autonomic nervous system(ANS), along with the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS or "bowels NS"). The ANS is a subdivision of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). ANS sends fibers to three tissues: cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, or glandular tissue. This stimulation, sympathetic or parasympathetic, is to control smooth muscle contraction, regulate cardiac muscle, or stimulate or inhibit glandular secretion. The actions of the parasympathetic nervous system can be summarized as "rest and digest" (as opposed to "fight-or-flight"). |
|10.8 - Ergotropic and Trophotropic nervous mechanisms|
|10.9 - Peripheral Nervous System|
|( P47 ) The peripheral nervous system (PNS) resides or extends outside the central nervous system (CNS), which consists of the brain and spinal cord. The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and organs. Unlike the central nervous system, the PNS is not protected by bone or by the blood-brain barrier, leaving it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system. |
|10.9.1 - Somatic Nervous System|
|( P48 ) The somatic nervous system (SNS) is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles, and with reception of external stimuli, which helps keep the body in touch with its surroundings (e.g., touch, hearing, and sight).
The system includes all the neurons connected with skeletal muscles, skin and sense organs. The somatic nervous system consists of efferent nerves responsible for sending brain signals for muscle contraction.
|10.9.2 - Autonomic Nervous System |
|( P49 ) The autonomic nervous system (ANS) (or visceral nervous system) is the part of the peripheral nervous system that acts as a control system, maintaining homeostasis in the body. These activities are generally performed without conscious control. The ANS affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, diameter of the pupils, micturition (urination), and sexual arousal. Whereas most of its actions are involuntary, some, such as breathing, work in tandem with the conscious mind.
It can be divided by subsystems into the parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system. It can also be divided functionally, into its sensory and motor systems.
The enteric nervous system is sometimes considered part of the autonomic nervous system, and sometimes considered an independent system.
|10.9.3 - Enteric Nervous System|
|( P50 ) The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a subdivision of the Peripheral Nervous System, that directly controls the gastrointestinal system. |
|10.10 - Smooth vs. Striated muscles|
|10.10.1 - Breathing – optionally conscious to an extent|
|10.10.2 - Efferent Somatic Nerves carry messages to Volentairy Skeletal Muscles|
|10.10.2.1 - Locking of Muscles, Spasms, Charlie Horse, Cramp|
|10.10.2.1.1 - Muscles can lock or cramp. One cause is overexertion way beyond normal limits, after you keep mentally forcing the muscle to contract beyond what it 'wants to', it is possible it fill forcefully 'lock' in a very contracted state. Locally at Muscle a one nerve cell receives the 'go' command and repeats it. This cell is what usually 'locks' when a muscle locks from over-exertion, it stops receivign a message from the brain, but continues to contract the muscle.|
|10.11 - Psychosomatic effects|
|( P51 ) breathing, heart rate, pupils, bleeding, BP, heart rate, loss of a sense, illness, pain, inhibited physical or mental development |
|10.12 - Brain Chemistry - Neurotransmitters|
|10.12.1 - Dopamine|
|( P52 ) Dopamine has many functions in the brain, including important roles in behavior and cognition, motor activity, motivation and reward, inhibition of prolactin production (involved in lactation), sleep, mood, attention, and learning. Dopaminergic neurons (i.e., neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is dopamine) are present chiefly in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain, substantia nigra pars compacta, and arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus.
A common hypothesis, though not uncontroversial is that dopamine has a function of transmitting reward prediction error. According to this hypothesis, the phasic responses of dopamine neurons are observed when an unexpected reward is presented. These responses transfer to the onset of a conditioned stimulus after repeated pairings with the reward. Further, dopamine neurons are depressed when the expected reward is omitted. Thus, dopamine neurons seem to encode the prediction error of rewarding outcomes. In nature, we learn to repeat behaviors that lead to maximize rewards. Dopamine is therefore believed to provide a teaching signal to parts of the brain responsible for acquiring new behavior. Temporal difference learning provides a computational model describing how the prediction error of dopamine neurons is used as a teaching signal.
In insects, a similar reward system exists, using octopamine, a chemical relative of dopamine.
|10.12.2 - Glutamate|
|10.12.2.1 - MSG|
|10.12.3 - Seratonin|
|10.12.4 - Melatonin|
|10.12.5 - Nitrous Oxide|
|10.13 - Physics of Brain's Electro-Chemical System|
|10.13.1 - Lightning Discharges – Uman|
|10.13.2 - Chemical inhibition, antagonism, stimulation|
|10.13.3 - 3D Chemical/Electrical Waves|
* R1 - On Intelligence : P 25-31
CHAPTER 11 - The Mind
|11.1 - vs the Brain ( the physical neurology )|
|11.2 - Formatory Mind / Brain|
|11.2.1 - Rote information regurgitation, popular catch phrases, things said but not acted upon.|
CHAPTER 12 - The Subconscious Mind
|11.3 - To Loose One's Mind|
|11.3.1 - What is there to Go?|
|( P53 ) Critical: Identity, Memory, Communication (Speach, Eye Blink)
Ancilary: Hearing, Sight, Touch, Smell, Mobility vs Paralasys, Face iIdentification, Math Ability,
|11.3.2 - Pre-Fontal Lobe Damage|
|18.104.22.168 - Lobatomy|
|22.214.171.124 - Pre-Frontal Lobe Dementia|
|126.96.36.199 - Birth Lesions|
|188.8.131.52 - Lead Poisoning|
|12.1 - Reticular Cortex and Attention|
|12.1.1 - You start to notice red cars everywhere if you have one on your mind.|
|12.1.2 - Police cars in your peripheral vision suddenly get noticed and your attention drawn to them.|
|12.2 - remembering a day later|
|12.2.1 - What did you say? Wait. oh!|
|12.3 - psycho-somatic|
|12.4 - Freud's Version|
|12.4.1 - The Preconscious|
CHAPTER 13 - The Endocrine System
|12.5 - Unconscious Actions/Sayings|
|12.5.1 - Touching Face|
|184.108.40.206 - Touching Ear - Tell Me More|
|220.127.116.11 - Scratching Nose|
|12.5.2 - Micro-Gestures|
CHAPTER 14 - Limbic System - the Brain's Emotional System
|13.1 - Hormones|
|13.1.1 - Oxytocin|
|13.1.2 - Prolactin (PRL) or Luteotropic hormone (LTH)|
|13.1.3 - Epinephrine ( Adrenaline ) |
|( P54 ) Epinephrine ( Adrenaline ) is a hormone and neurotransmitter. As a hormone, Epinephrine increases the response of the sympathetic division of the Autonomic Nervous System. Epinephrine is a "fight or flight" hormone, and plays a central role in the short-term stress reaction. It is released from the adrenal glands when danger threatens or in an emergency. |
|13.1.4 - Norepinephrine (INN) (abbreviated norepi or NE) or noradrenaline (BAN) (abbreviated NA or NAd)|
|( P55 ) Norepinephrine (INN) (abbreviated norepi or NE) or noradrenaline (BAN) (abbreviated NA or NAd) is a catecholamine with dual roles as a hormone and a neurotransmitter.
As a stress hormone, norepinephrine affects parts of the brain where attention and responding actions are controlled. Along with epinephrine, norepinephrine also underlies the fight-or-flight response, directly increasing heart rate, triggering the release of glucose from energy stores, and increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle.
However, when norepinephrine acts as a drug it will increase blood pressure by its prominent increasing effects on the vascular tone. The resulting increase in vascular resistance triggers a compensatory reflex that overcomes its direct stimulatory effects on the heart, called the baroreceptor reflex, which results in a drop in heart rate called reflex bradycardia.
Norepinephrine is synthesized from dopamine and is released from the adrenal medulla into the blood as a hormone.
Norepinephrine is also a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and sympathetic nervous system where it is released from noradrenergic neurons. The actions of norepinephrine are carried out via the binding to adrenergic receptors.
The noradrenergic neurons in the brain form a neurotransmitter system, that, when activated, exerts effects on large areas of the brain. The effects are alertness and arousal, and influences on the reward system.
Anatomically, the noradrenergic neurons originate both in the locus ceruleus and the lateral tegmental field. The axons of the neurons in the locus ceruleus act on adrenergic receptors in many different brain areas. This structure explains some of the clinical uses of norepinephrine, since a modification of the system affects large areas of the brain.
|14.1 - Emotional component in Control|
|14.1.1 - Fire under the Pot|
|14.1.2 - Rage & the Male Doomsday Machine|
|14.1.3 - Maslow's Hierarchy|
|18.104.22.168 - Marasmus|
|14.2 - Negative Emotions & Dwelling on Matters|
|( P56 ) How is it that people can be literally eaten alive by thoughts they do not want to have yet do? Negative Emotions are always OUR fault, and OUR choosing. - Our emotional state, poor or otherwise, is never anyone's fault but our own. Even if we are offended in the most heinous way by another individual consciously, how we TAKE the misdeed is up to no one but us. We can apply this standard to others and yet be blind to applying it to ourselves. We expect every day people to be over-run by their own negative emotions – soap operas can attest. Yet, we expect our developed, learned, and self-made men to not be susceptible to negative emotions. |
|14.2.1 - Repent (metanoeo) means a Change of Mind|
|22.214.171.124 - Must 'Think in new ways'|
|126.96.36.199 - Same old associations will lead to the same old destination|
|( P57 ) breaking the cycle of reaction |
|188.8.131.52 - How we 'take' things|
|184.108.40.206.1 - The Machine of Life|
|220.127.116.11.1.1 - Being subject to rogue waves of Life|
|18.104.22.168 - Seeing both sides|
|22.214.171.124.1 - Understanding why others are the way they are and do what they do.|
|14.3 - Neurological Emotional Systems|
|14.3.1 - Heart|
|14.3.2 - Brain stem and spinal cord|
CHAPTER 15 - Listening to Your Body's Signals
|14.4 - Solar plexus and similar nerve nodes|
|15.1 - Hunger vs. The 'Full' Feeling|
|15.2 - Thirst|
|15.3 - Muscle Exertion & Will-Power|
|15.4 - Feeling Tired|
|15.5 - Urge to Urinate|
|15.6 - Urge to Deficate|
CHAPTER 16 - Who is there, in there, to BE in Control?
|15.7 - Sexual Urges|
|16.1 - Homunculi – little man in front of screen and controls|
|( P58 ) But then who controls HIM? |
|16.2 - What Exists|
|16.2.1 - Neural nets|
|16.2.2 - 3D electrical and chemical waves|
|16.2.3 - New Study of Brain Area Interconnections Identified a Central Plexus|
CHAPTER 17 - Attention
|16.3 - Soul, Spark-of-life|
|17.1 - 3 types: Draw, Directed, Wandering|
|17.1.1 - Drawn Attention|
|126.96.36.199 - Unintentional attending to – pain, disruptions, distractions. The object of your attention has captured your attention.|
|( P59 ) Pain – reaction evoking. |
|17.1.2 - Directed Attention|
|188.8.131.52 - Paying attention – giving attention. Conscious, Intentional attending to – studying. Dividing Attention, splitting attentio.|
CHAPTER 18 - Self-Awareness / States of Consciousness
|17.2 - Alertness|
|18.1 - Levels|
|( P60 ) As self-awareness lessens, e.g. alcohol intoxication, self-control must at least correspondingly lessen. |
|18.2 - List of States of Consciousness |
|18.2.1 - Coma|
|18.2.2 - Deep Physiological Sleep|
|18.2.3 - REM Physiological Sleep|
|18.2.4 - Lucid Dream|
|18.2.5 - Sleep Walking|
|18.2.6 - Sleep Paralisys|
|184.108.40.206 - Anastesia Waking-Terror|
|18.2.7 - Waking State – normal awake state of people|
|220.127.116.11 - Identification|
|18.104.22.168 - Fantasy|
|18.2.8 - Daydream / Daze|
|18.2.9 - Subjective Consciousness|
|18.2.10 - Objective Consciousness|
|18.2.11 - Samsahara??? sp?|
|18.2.12 - Near Death Experience - floating or light tunnel|
|22.214.171.124 - Angels, dead relatives, etc.|
|126.96.36.199 - Life-Flash before eyes|
CHAPTER 19 - Hypnotism
|18.3 - Differences Between Levels of Consciousness|
|18.3.1 - Time Passes Slower|
|18.3.2 - More Impressions are Received|
|188.8.131.52 - More Associations / Connections Made|
|18.3.3 - Less Identified|
|184.108.40.206 - Identification|
|220.127.116.11.1 - Non-Questioning, Non-Thinking, Asleep to Onself|
|18.104.22.168.2 - Being Caught-Up In, Absorbed In. As in Negative Emotional Dwelling.|
|22.214.171.124.3 - To Not Identify with anything would mean to take NOTHING Seriously but that which causes you to stay Asleep to Seeing Yourself as you Really Are.|
|18.3.4 - Look At Ourselves (our own beam instead of neighbors mote)|
|19.1 - Under hypnotism we all reveal an executive, know-everything, background personality.|
|19.1.1 - super overseer function|
|19.2 - Dominants talking submissive into things|
|19.3 - Repetition – subconscious programming|
CHAPTER 20 - Dreams - During Physiological Sleep
|19.4 - Hypmotism ; hyponotic trance or sleep|
|19.4.1 - different levels of depth|
|126.96.36.199 - Reverie|
|20.1 - Dreaming & Sleep|
|20.1.1 - Dreams - the Maintainers of Sleep|
|20.2 - Nightly Dream Cycles|
|20.3 - Accumulation os Sleep Depravation|
|20.3.1 - Dream Cycle Manifistations of Psychotic Episodes|
|20.3.2 - Permanant Damage|
|20.4 - Dream Physiology|
|20.4.1 - The Reticular Cortex seems to initiate the dream cycles.|
|( P61 ) The reticular cortex acts like a main switchboard where the brain's sense inputs and motor outputs can be 'disconnected' from the body during sleep and dreaming. When the reticular cortex malfunctions and keeps supressing motor outputs right after your 'awaken' you get an episode of sleep-paralasys. |
|20.5 - Historical / Cultural Views of Dreams|
|20.5.1 - African|
|( P62 ) Dreams are communications with the ancestors. |
|( P63 ) As spoken of by John Mbiti and other African scholars, the indigenous African ontological perspective is generally one steeped in connection to spirit where distinctions are muted between the spiritual and material, the sacred and secular. The dream and traditional religion are inextricably linked as is the connection between religion and society, where religion permeates all areas of life. Owing to this interconnection, the dream takes on special social significance for African indigenous cultures - a significance that has crossed the Atlantic and is witnessed in the black diaspora. Appearance of an ancestor in one's dream is considered a significant experience on both sides of the ocean, informing and enriching the lives of individuals and communities. However, the ancestor's message and its purpose can vary greatly - from providing healing and prophesy to demanding changed behavior and propitiation. As well, not all ancestors are welcome dream visitors, nor are all deceased relatives always considered ancestors. This web of connection that is the dream links the living and the dead allowing the continuity of existence to be felt and ensuring the perpetuation of guidance from the ancestors. |
|20.6 - Dream Meanings & Dream Symbolism|
|20.7 - Lucid Dreaming - Controling and Guiding your Dream|
|20.8 - Nightmares|
|20.8.1 - More Common in Children|
|188.8.131.52 - Night Terrors|
|20.8.2 - Spicy Food|
|20.8.3 - Cold Air?|
CHAPTER 21 - Fantasy, Phantasy, Daydreams, & Delusions
|20.9 - Drugs and Dreaming|
|20.9.1 - Alcohol|
|184.108.40.206 - Effects on Reticular Cortex|
|220.127.116.11 - DT - Delerium Tremens|
|20.9.2 - Entada rheedii - African Dream Herb (bean)|
|( P64 ) These giant seeds have a long history as a powerful vivid dream inducer when mixed in a pipe with tobacco or even when mixed with your favorite herb. The plant has a long history and appears naturally from near Durban northwards throughout tropical Africa and into India, Asia and Australia.
The extraodinarily large seeds are often carried or worn on necklaces and pendants as lucky charms, but since Africa is a culture that believes that contact with their ancestors comes through dreams, they have found and cultivated plants that help achieve this spiritual connection, and this is one of them.
|20.9.3 - African Dream Root, Silene capensis (Ubulawu)|
|( P65 ) The root is used by African shamans for accessing the dream state.
This sacred plant is used by shamans of the verdant river valleys of the eastern cape province of South Africa has the ability to induce remarkably vivid dreams.
This obscure flowering species is regarded by shamans of region as a type of "Ubulawu" or medicinal root that they call "Undela Ziimhlophe," which translates literally as "white paths" or white ways. It is suspected that this sacred plant's oneirongenic, or dream-inducing activity is likely due to triterpenoid saponins contained within its roots. Relatively small amounts of root (250 mg range) are reported to be active. The plant exerts only minimal alterations in waking consciousness, yet the effects upon the dream state can be profound.
Expected Results: While sleeping, your dreams will be exceptionally colorful, and will be remembered upon awakening. (A good idea is to keep a notebook handy for writing down the results.) Ubulawu is traditionally used to access dream-time and to communicate with ones ancestors.
|20.9.4 - Calea Zacatechichi (Dream Herb/Leaf of God)|
|( P66 ) A plant used by the Chontal Indians of Mexico to obtain divinatory messages through dreaming. Traditionally the plant was drank as a tea while a cigarette was smoked before bed, bringing relaxation and fluidity to mind and body, ushering in an easy and deep sleep during which the dreamer will find the gates to the dreamscape gently opened. |
|20.9.5 - THC|
|18.104.22.168 - Depresses At Least Memory of Dreaming|
CHAPTER 22 - Belief / Placebo Effect / Hexes / Evil Eyes / Curses / Fortune Telling
|22.1 - Subconscious|
CHAPTER 23 - Neurological / Psychological Orders and Disorders
|22.2 - The Power of Belief|
|23.1 - Obsessive Compulsive|
|23.2 - Schizophrenia|
|23.2.1 - Types|
|22.214.171.124 - Catatonic|
|126.96.36.199 - Paranoid|
|188.8.131.52 - Delusional|
|23.2.2 - Symptoms|
|184.108.40.206 - Hearing voices, telling them do DO things|
|220.127.116.11 - think they are under remote control of another person like is a robot|
|18.104.22.168 - Strange Metallic Taste / World is Tinted in Color|
|22.214.171.124 - Talks to Self Out-Loud|
|23.3 - ADD|
|23.3.1 - Fast Scene-Changing TV|
|23.4 - ADHD|
|23.4.1 - blurting out wrong answers fast, correct answer if takes time|
|126.96.36.199 - Timed school test problem|
|23.4.2 - Start vs Stop reaction times test|
|23.5 - Nervous Ticks|
|23.5.1 - Tick Diseases|
|188.8.131.52 - Turrets|
|184.108.40.206 - Parkinsons|
|23.6 - Impulsivity|
|23.6.1 - Normal Inhibition|
|23.6.2 - THC|
|23.7 - Sociopath, Psychopath, Anti-social – 3 ways to not say the same thing|
|23.8 - Multiple Personalities|
|23.8.1 - True cases are rare|
|220.127.116.11 - usually very severe abuse – only most extreme cases split|
|23.8.2 - One usually knows about the others.|
|23.8.3 - Created by therapists or uncovered?|
|18.104.22.168 - Everyone has them under deep hypnosis|
|23.8.4 - Multi-linguals exhibit different personalities when speaking different languages.|
|23.9 - Depression, Melancholia, Sloth, Tristia, Sadness, Boredom|
|23.10 - Alzheimer's|
|23.10.1 - Aluminum And Plaque|
CHAPTER 24 - Schools of Psychological / Religious / Philosophical Thought
|23.11 - Frontal Lobe Dementia|
|24.1 - Teachers are not created by Teachers. NO Teacher of ANY Religion, Philosophy, etc. has Ever Brought a Pupil up to Their Own Level. |
|24.2 - Gurdjieff|
|24.2.1 - Sleep / Awake|
|24.2.2 - Self-Observation & Self-Remembering|
|24.2.3 - Personality & Essence|
|24.3 - Berne, Eric MD|
|24.3.1 - Personal Interaction Structural Hunger|
|24.3.2 - Transactional Analysis (TA)|
|22.214.171.124 - Transactions|
|126.96.36.199 - Games|
|188.8.131.52 - Life Scripts|
|184.108.40.206 - Positions: I'm OK or I'm NOT OK|
|24.4 - Freud|
|24.4.1 - Pre-Conscious, Subconscious, ID, Ego, Super-ego|
|24.5 - Oracle of Delphi|
|24.5.1 - Know Thyself – the Power of Self Knowledge|
|24.6 - Elysian Mysteries|
|( P67 ) Spanned 2,000 Years - These mysteries began in the Mycenean period (c. 1600 BC) and lasting two thousand years. They were a major festival during the Hellenic era, later spreading to Rome. |
|( P68 ) They were Attended by anyone who was anyone in the antient world. |
|( P69 ) Eunapios - a historian and biographer of the Greek philosophers. Eunapios had been initiated by the last legitimate Hierophant, who had been commissioned by the emperor Julian to restore the Mysteries, which had by then fallen into decay. |
|( P70 ) The ceremonies included drinking a mint beverage called kykeon that most likely contained a psychedelic agent. |
|24.6.1 - The fast was broken while drinking a special drink of barley and pennyroyal, called kykeon.
Kykeon was an Ancient Greek drink made mainly of water, barley and herbs. It was used at the climax of the Eleusinian Mysteries to break a sacred fast, but it was also a favourite drink of Greek peasants.|
|24.7 - Egypt|
|24.7.1 - Pre-Sands|
|220.127.116.11 - Sphynx|
|24.7.2 - various periods....|
|24.7.3 - Modern Day|
|24.8 - Christian|
|24.8.1 - Esoteric Christianity|
|24.8.2 - Gnostic|
|24.8.3 - Roman Catholic|
|18.104.22.168 - Based on Obedience - Emotional Brain|
|24.8.4 - Protestant|
|24.8.5 - Essenes|
|24.8.6 - Coptic|
|24.8.7 - Ethiopian|
|24.9 - Jewish|
|24.10 - Dianetics|
|24.10.1 - Self-claimed science of the mind|
|24.10.2 - Engrams|
|24.11 - Plato|
|24.11.1 - Shadows on Cave Wall|
|24.12 - Pavlov|
|24.12.1 - Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning)|
|24.13 - Robert S. de Ropp|
CHAPTER 25 - Loss of Self-Control
|24.14 - the 'Matrix'|
|25.1 - Falling Off the Wagon|
|25.2 - Self-Destructive Behavior|
|25.2.1 - Evolutionary Explanation for Suicide, Especially in Males|
|25.3 - Self-Deception|
|25.3.1 - Why do we lie to ourselves, trick & deceive ourselves, and coerce ourselves?|
|( P71 ) The answer is it's not 'us' arguing agains 'us'. It's an essentially demon force arguing with 'us' and portraying itself to be part of 'us' and it's wishes 'ours'. |
|25.3.2 - Stoke patients 'lie' about why their hand cant move, about WHOSE hand their limp hand is even!|
|25.4 - Prostination|
|25.5 - Distractions|
|( P72 ) Someone wronging you or not treating you 'as you feel you DESERVE' to be, Phone Call, Visitor Caller, Sond in Head, Reliving the Past, Pain, Hunger, Thirst, Zoning Out, Noices, Accidents. - Almost always involved with the Past or the Future. |
CHAPTER 26 - Self-Made Molecules Molecular Hormone Hormonal Control over us
|25.6 - I 'Couldn't Help Myself', I 'Couldn't Control Myself', I 'Just found myself doing it'|
|26.1 - Testosterone and Aggressiveness|
|26.2 - Serotonin and Sleep|
|26.3 - Oxytocin and Trust & Love|
|26.4 - Food Eating |
|26.4.1 - Hunger Pangs, Rumbling of the Stomach Muscles, Acid Production|
|26.4.2 - Leptin|
|26.4.3 - Insulin|
|22.214.171.124 - Protein eaten hormone|
|26.5 - PMS|
|26.5.1 - Estrogens|
|126.96.36.199 - Estradiol|
|188.8.131.52 - Estrone|
|26.5.2 - Progestagens|
|184.108.40.206 - Progesterone|
|220.127.116.11 - Progestins|
|26.5.3 - Androgens|
|18.104.22.168 - Testosterone|
|26.5.4 - Beta-endorphin|
CHAPTER 27 - Timing of Effect to Exposure
|26.6 - DMT|
|26.6.1 - Penieal Gland|
|26.6.2 - Promotes Life-Review|
|27.1 - Immediate & Short-Lived|
CHAPTER 28 - Foreign Molecular (Food,Drug) Control over us
|27.2 - Delayed - Developmental Exposure Causing Lifelong Effects|
|27.2.1 - Estrogin & Testosterone in Womb|
|28.1 - Orthomolecular - The Right Molecules|
|28.1.1 - Vitamins|
|22.214.171.124 - Lack of Vitamin ? by tapework, effects are psychological:|
|28.1.2 - Food|
|28.2 - Addiction|
|28.3 - Sucrose Sugar|
|28.3.1 - addictive (use creates desire for more)|
|28.4 - Salt - NaCl|
|28.5 - MSG|
|28.5.1 - taste, neuron firing rate|
|28.6 - Caffeine|
|28.6.1 - Addictive (use creates desire for more)|
|28.6.2 - Increases Endurance|
|28.7 - Ethanol Alcohol|
|28.7.1 - addictive (use creates desire for more)|
|28.7.2 - educes inhibitions|
|28.7.3 - Magnifies Emotions and Makes them Volitile|
|28.7.4 - reduces self-awareness|
|28.8 - THC|
|( P73 ) Cough, Jerk, Spasm, Lightheadedness |
|28.9 - LSD|
|28.10 - Psilosybin|
|28.11 - Salvia Divinorum A - Salvia Divinorum|
|28.12 - DMT|
|28.13 - Opioids|
|28.13.1 - Heroine|
|28.13.2 - Morphine|
|28.13.3 - Hydromorphone|
|28.13.4 - Loperamide|
|( P74 ) Loperamide is an opioid receptor agonist and acts on the μ-opioid receptors in the myenteric plexus large intestines; it does not affect the central nervous system like other opioids. Loperamide molecules do not cross the blood-brain barrier in significant amounts, and thus it has no analgesic properties. However, loperamide can cause physical dependence. Symptoms of opiate withdrawal have been observed in patients abruptly discontinuing long-term therapy with loperamide. |
|28.14 - Lithium|
|( P75 ) Although the Li+ ion has a smaller diameter than either Na+ or K+, in a watery environment like the cytoplasmic fluid, Li+ binds to the hydrogen atoms of water making it effectively larger than either Na+ or K+ ions. How Li+ works in the CNS is still a matter of debate. Li+ elevates brain levels of tryptophan, 5-HT (serotonin), and 5-HIAA (a serotonin metabolite). The serotonin system is related to stability of mood. Li+ also reduces catecholamine activity in the brain (associated with brain activation and mania), by enhancing reuptake and reducing release. Therapeutically useful amounts of lithium (~ 0.6 to 1.2 mmol/l) are only slightly lower than toxic amounts (>1.5 mmol/l), so the blood levels of lithium must be carefully monitored during treatment to avoid toxicity.
Common side effects of lithium treatment include muscle tremors, twitching, ataxia, hyperparathyroidism as first described by Ashoka Prasad, bone loss, hypercalcemia, hypertension, etc.), kidney damage, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (polyuria and polydipsia) and seizures. Some of the side-effects are a result of the increased elimination of potassium.
CHAPTER 29 - Parasite Parasitic Control over us
|28.15 - Hypericin, Hyperforin, et. al - St John's wort|
|29.1 - Toxoplasmodia gondii|
|29.1.1 - Toxoplasmodia gondii in Rats|
|29.1.2 - Toxoplasmodia gondii in Cats|
|( P76 ) in rats
loss of fear of cat smell
increases risk taking behavior
more exploratory/less timid???
|29.1.3 - Toxoplasmodia gondii in Humans|
|( P77 ) in people
increases risk taking behavior
Decreased novelty-seeking behavior
Lower rule-consciousness and jealousy (in men)
More warmth and conscientiousness (in women)
"Infected men have lower IQs, achieve a lower level of education and have shorter attention spans. They are also more likely to break rules and take risks, be more independent, more anti-social, suspicious, jealous and morose, and are deemed less attractive to women.
"On the other hand, infected women tend to be more outgoing, friendly, more promiscuous, and are considered more attractive to men compared with non-infected controls.
"In short, it can make men behave like alley cats and women behave like sex kittens".
|29.2 - Warts and scratching, picking|
|29.3 - Respiratory infections and sneezing/coughing|
|29.4 - Intestinal parasites and diarrhea|
|29.5 - Intestinal worms and food desires??|
|29.5.1 - Vitamin deficiencies|
|29.6 - STDs and sexuality|
|29.7 - Linea Alba – bacteria|
|29.8 - Athletes Foot|
|29.9 - Tooth carries bacteria and sweets|
|29.10 - Yeast? From beer, bread, etc.|
|29.11 - Malaria and Mosquitoes|
|( P78 ) Malaria somehow makes mosquitoes attracted to bit it's hosts preferentially. |
CHAPTER 30 - Predator Control
|29.12 - Baby human causing moma and dada troubles|
|29.12.1 - Morning Sickness|
|29.12.2 - Postpartum Depression|
|29.12.3 - Sympathy Pains|
|30.1 - Selection of Prey by Predators is a STONG Evelutionary Pressure|
|30.2 - Available Territory|
|30.2.1 - Time of Day|
CHAPTER 31 - Meme Control Over Us
|30.3 - Current Human Hunting Laws that Protect Small or Young Prey are Reducing the Average Animal Body Size|
|30.3.1 - Example: American White Tail Deer|
CHAPTER 32 - Social / Cultural Control Over Us
|32.1 - Obligations: Work, Family, God|
|32.2 - Morality|
|32.3 - Religion & God|
|32.3.1 - Guilt & Remorse|
|32.4 - Social Image|
|32.4.1 - Maintaining image, saving face|
|32.4.2 - Giraffe brain eating|
CHAPTER 33 - Government Control Over Us
|32.5 - Social Attack of Deviancy from Norm|
|32.5.1 - Fish nip at misbehaving fellows|
CHAPTER 34 - Sexual Control Over Us
|33.1 - Fear, Brutality, Threats, Public Ignorance, Political Power|
CHAPTER 35 - Magus (Magician)
|34.1 - How Our Sex Affects Our Behaviour|
|34.1.1 - Hormones|
|34.1.2 - How Much of it is Due to Nurture?|
|35.1 - forcing|
|35.2 - Hypnotism|
CHAPTER 36 - Master / Dominatrix Control Over Us
|35.3 - Slight of Hand|
|36.1 - Forcing|
CHAPTER 37 - Advertising and Succeptability to Advertiser's Control
|36.2 - Brain Washing|
|37.1 - familiarity, trust, creatures of habit|
CHAPTER 38 - Parental Control - Conditioning, Training, Upbringing, Rearing
|37.2 - Brands|
|38.1 - Allies|
|38.2 - That's How I was Brought Up. / That's What I was Taught is Right.|
|38.3 - Abuse|
|38.4 - Cherished Memories|
|38.5 - Accessable Memories|
|38.6 - Repressed Memories|
|38.7 - Games - Games People Play (psychological)|
|38.8 - Life Scripts|
CHAPTER 39 - Situational (Environmental) Control Over Us
|38.9 - Parental Methods of Enforcement|
|38.9.1 - Shame|
|126.96.36.199 - Standing in the Corner Wearing a Dunce Cap|
|38.9.2 - Loss of Love|
|38.9.3 - Grounding - Restrictions|
|188.8.131.52 - Sending to Bed-Room|
|184.108.40.206 - Restriction to House|
|220.127.116.11 - Loss of Privleges to Entertainment|
|18.104.22.168.1 - TV|
|22.214.171.124.2 - Video Games|
|126.96.36.199.3 - Music|
|188.8.131.52.4 - Phone|
|184.108.40.206 - Loss of Other Privledges|
|220.127.116.11.1 - Desert|
|38.9.4 - Corporal|
|18.104.22.168 - Smacking, Hitting, Beating|
|22.214.171.124 - Work, Chores|
|39.1 - Feeding Frenzy – perceived value vs demand|
|39.1.1 - rarer is more valued|
|39.1.2 - n demand is more valued|
|39.2 - In Step like Wooden Soldiers|
|( P79 ) We move when another person does or along with another sudden stimulus – eg. People cough at same times, first one evoking others near their cough threshold already. |
|39.2.1 - Insects, birds, and fish swarm in synchrony.|
CHAPTER 40 - Lucerferic Forces' Control Over Us
|39.3 - Self-Individuation|
|39.3.1 - Group member – group think, group action, mob|
|39.3.2 - Group Dress / Uniform|
|126.96.36.199 - Prison|
|188.8.131.52 - Military|
|184.108.40.206 - School|
CHAPTER 41 - Secret World Order's Control
|40.1 - Selfish Memes|
|41.1 - Illuminati|
|41.2 - Jews|
CHAPTER 42 - Astrological Control over us
|41.3 - Aliens|
|42.1 - Moon|
|42.1.1 - Full Moon|
|( P80 ) More ER visits, back pain increases, more crimes? |
CHAPTER 43 - Supernatural Control over us
|42.2 - Sun|
|42.2.1 - Sunlight sets biol-rhythm via serotonin from pituitary|
|42.2.2 - Lack of sunlight can cause depression in those with SAD|
|43.1 - The Devil and Willpower|
|43.1.1 - various sides of devil|
|43.1.2 - 2 nd force, denying force in triad, devsil|
|43.2 - Possessions & Exorcism|
|43.3 - Ghosts, spirits, demons|
CHAPTER 44 - Other Controls Over Us
|43.4 - past lives|
|43.4.1 - soul reincarnation|
|44.1 - Group good – evolutionary tendency for individuals to act against self interests for group benefits|
|44.2 - Stockholm Syndrome|
CHAPTER 45 - Are we even conscious? And in control ever?
|44.3 - Other's Purposefull Control Over Us|
|44.3.1 - Social Enginering|
|44.3.2 - Child or Reverse Psychology|
|220.127.116.11 - Such an action is a Force|
|45.1 - Or does it only appear so...|
|( P81 ) Bees and their dances – complex but dumb and unlearned – instinctual.
Monkey Deception – crying food in dense foliage away from actual scarce food source.
Humans today – Asleep with open eyes.
|45.2 - Experience of Free Will in Decision Making Experiment Showed a Brain Spike Preceded 'Decision'|
|45.3 - Formatory Mind *(R2) |
* R2 - 2012 - The Return of Quetzalcoatl
CHAPTER 46 - Methods of Self-Control
|46.1 - Patience|
|46.2 - Self-Observation - starting at the beginning|
|46.2.1 - Change Nothing about yourself at First! Else you will only see the Changes.|
|46.2.2 - Seeing yourself as your are without predjudace|
|18.104.22.168 - Observe ALL of your personal acts, not only the Pretty Ones|
|22.214.171.124 - Seeing that we are not always the same 'person'. One minute we promise something and mean in, the next we have no intention of following through.|
|46.2.3 - Self-Observation Methods|
|126.96.36.199 - Observe Opinions and your speaking from them|
|188.8.131.52 - Observe Attitudes, Roles you Play, Postures you Take, I's (Personalities) within You|
|184.108.40.206.1 - Attitudes|
|220.127.116.11.1.1 - Points of View we Always take Mechanically|
|18.104.22.168.1.2 - Formed Through Long, Habitual, Take-for-Granted Thinking|
|22.214.171.124.1.3 - We 'Take' things Mechanically, Through Attitudes|
|126.96.36.199.1.4 - Attitudes are Charactaristic Reactions to Similar Repeated Situations|
|188.8.131.52.1.5 - Attitudes are Chiefly Connected with False-Personality|
|184.108.40.206.1.6 - As Attitudes become Fixed they become Buffers|
|220.127.116.11.1.6.1 - Buffers|
|18.104.22.168.1.7 - Formatory Mind|
|22.214.171.124.1.7.1 - Origional Awareness|
|126.96.36.199.1.8 - Watch our Voice Intonation - Attitudes often Speak in a Flat Dead Voice|
|188.8.131.52 - Observe Mechanical Reactions|
|184.108.40.206 - Observe your Phantasies and Fantasies but do not Believe them|
|220.127.116.11.1 - Phantasy is a state of mind of an infant child during the early stages of development.|
|18.104.22.168.2 - Fantasy is a reverie, a daydream, an imagined unreality that anyone can create.|
|( P82 ) Phantasies satisfy instincts by converting them into ideas and images. Hunger leads to a phantasy of an object that can satisfy it.
Phantasies come from instincts that border physical and psychical activities and are thus experienced both physically and mentally. For example a child who sucks its thumb is enacting the phantasy of feeding. Satisfying experiences are re-enacted internally through phantasies.
Phantasy enables the ego to perform its most basic function of establishing object relations. A world of good and bad objects are thus constructed through a process of projection and introjection between the external and internal worlds. Phantasy thus allows us to construct both our own identity and also, through projection, the construction of Others.
Phantasies develop in and into play, and Klein used 'play therapy' to learn about the early development of infants as a more effective method than Freud's use of free association.
Phantasies continue through childhood and into adult life.
"Phantasies - becoming more elaborate and referring to a wider range of objects and situations - continue throughout development and accompany all activities; they never stop playing a great part in all mental life" (Klein:1997:251)
Freud recognized phantasies, but looked to the unconscious wish as the prime mover. He saw phantasies as imagined fulfilments of frustrated wishes. Klein puts phantasies beneath unconscious wishes, rather than alongside them.
|22.214.171.124 - Observe What You Are 'Caught' by, 'Held-Down' by, What 'Turns us Sour'|
|126.96.36.199 - Observe our Likes and Dislikes. Ask Why we dislinke, starting with stronges dislikes first. See our underlying attitudes and prejudices.|
|188.8.131.52 - Observe Our Repeated Phrases and Sayings - Our Gramaphone Recordings|
|184.108.40.206 - Observe when we get negative and what has led us there - while still staying seperate from it.|
|220.127.116.11 - Observe our Internal Considering of Others (Account Making of Who Owes us What)|
|18.104.22.168 - Observe our Sense of Entitlement - of Being Owed Something if only, but almost always, Treatment and Special Consideration on the Part of Others Towards Us|
|22.214.171.124.1 - Feeling Mistreated|
|126.96.36.199.2 - Feeling Un-Recognized|
|188.8.131.52.3 - Taking Offense - when our False Personality, Pride, or Vanity are Stepped On|
|184.108.40.206 - Observe Everything. How We Think, How We Speak, How We Behave|
|220.127.116.11 - Inner Seperation|
|18.104.22.168.1 - Realize we are looking out onto the world from WITHIN a BODY. Usually, we take ourselves AS the Body.|
|22.214.171.124.2 - the Observer and the Observed. You need to be both, hence inner seperation.|
|126.96.36.199.2.1 - Seperation within into 2 is necessary to advance|
|188.8.131.52.2.1.1 - Moving Center is the start of Seperation into 2|
|184.108.40.206.2.2 - Witness Principle|
|220.127.116.11.2.3 - To Remember Onself|
|18.104.22.168.2.4 - The True Meaning of Walking on Water - Walking aboves one's own waves maintaing seperation and observing the writhing sea below of your lower levels.|
|22.214.171.124.2.4.1 - Go up high into the Mountains|
|126.96.36.199 - Clearing Mind of Disractions|
|( P83 ) Musician on stage can't be thinking about dinner... |
|188.8.131.52 - Methods of Physical Relaxation|
|( P84 ) Starts with muscles. Move Internal Attention to various body parts. Start with eye muscles, nose, mouth, cheeks, chin, head, neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, hands, finders, trunk/torso, legs, feet, toes. Say to self, 'Relax.' Illness Quietens the Emotional Center and so Relaxes us. |
|46.3 - Creating a Center-of-Gravity|
|46.4 - Interior Prayer / Interior Watchguard *(R3) |
|46.4.1 - Right Thought leads to Right Action|
|184.108.40.206 - Intolerance Leads to Violence|
|46.4.2 - Make All Actions Part of an Intention / Willed Intentional Doing|
|46.4.3 - Forsee Ramifications & Interconnectedness / See Time Bodies of Objects and Events|
|46.4.4 - Split Attention to See Self and World.|
|( P85 ) Not Identifying with world or your actions. Remembering yourself and your seperateness from the world and your actions. |
|( P86 ) Seeing yourself as looking our from your body. Actually having hair or the like in your peripheral view helps the effect. This consciousness of self must become continuous. |
|46.4.5 - Filter Incomming Impressions and Choose Our Own Thoughts|
|46.4.6 - Watchguard|
|46.5 - Remorse|
|46.6 - Repent (metanoeo - means a Change of Mind) - Change is Required|
|46.6.1 - You MUST give up being in NY if you want to go to FL.|
|220.127.116.11 - One Must CHANGE to Be DIFFERENT. Must Sacrafice Something.|
|46.6.2 - Sacrificing (giving up) our Suffering (and indignation)|
|18.104.22.168 - Must Sacrifice Ordinary Mechanical Suffering|
|22.214.171.124.1 - Must Destroy the Emotional Center's Likes and Dislikes|
|126.96.36.199.2 - If Only's|
|188.8.131.52.3 - Mechanical Suffering is Fraudulant - this is a keynote to what to sacrafice|
|184.108.40.206.4 - Mechanical Suffering Closes us. Real Suffering Opens us ti Higher Levels.|
|220.127.116.11 - We Can Only Sacrafice a Thing We are Conscious Of|
|18.104.22.168.1 - We must become aware of the forms Ordinary Mechanical Suffering takes and then practice Self-Observation.|
|22.214.171.124 - Sacrafice means to make Holy (that to which all personal connection has been relinquished) or to make Conscious.|
|126.96.36.199 - Must Smash Self-Complacency, Selfishness, Self-Esteem, Pride, Vanity, Etc.|
|188.8.131.52.1 - Else They Control YOU|
|46.7 - What to fix|
|46.7.1 - 7 Deadly Sins +|
|46.7.2 - Bad Habits|
|184.108.40.206 - Cursing / Foul Language|
|( P87 ) Sailor Talk represents Lack of Eloquence, Vocabulary, and SELF-CONTROL! |
|220.127.116.11 - Scratching / Touching Yourself|
|18.104.22.168 - Not Cleaning-Up After Oneself|
|22.214.171.124 - Gossip|
|126.96.36.199 - Staring|
|188.8.131.52 - Daydreaming / Worrying about the Future|
|184.108.40.206 - Lying to Others, To Self, Telling Stories, Exadurations, Stupid Sincerity|
|220.127.116.11 - Not Listening|
|18.104.22.168 - Not Considering Others|
|22.214.171.124.1 - Chewing with Mouth Open|
|126.96.36.199 - Bad Posture, Poor Breathing, Lack of Exercise|
|188.8.131.52 - Judgements and Assumptions|
|184.108.40.206 - Internal Consideration / Selfishness|
|220.127.116.11 - Not Looking at Both Sides / All Aspects of Situations|
|18.104.22.168 - Acting Mechanically in a Role|
|22.214.171.124 - Distractability and Non-constancy of Aim and Direction|
|126.96.36.199 - Seeking Approval|
|188.8.131.52 - Talking about your Problems instead of Solutions|
|184.108.40.206 - Henpecking. Raising yourself up by lowering another. Abusing and belitteling others to make yourelf feel better.|
|220.127.116.11 - Delay / Procrastination / Sloth / Doing the Base-Minimum|
|18.104.22.168 - Bad Attitude, Being Mean or Grouchey|
|46.8 - Thought Control Methods|
|46.8.1 - Shadow-Boxing Ourselves in ongoing argument of devil vs. right|
|22.214.171.124 - Strengthens the Enemy by Keeping them in our Attention|
|46.8.2 - Clearing our Mind|
|46.8.3 - Inner Stop|
|46.8.4 - Distraction|
|46.8.5 - Visualization|
|46.8.6 - Symbol Transformation|
|( P88 ) If removing the thought (symbol) or fighting with it do not work, try to Transform the thought. In dreams symbols loose their normal interconnectedness and the grass can be blue without it being questioned, or substitutions can occur and a can of soda can be a can of bear. Using this, an alcoholic, when confronted with an unfightable thought to drink a can of beer, can drink a can of soda as a substitute. Using this ability for symbol manipulation, you can transform a thought into an effectively opposite one. |
|46.8.7 - Looking a few steps ahead down the road|
|( P89 ) Think about the negative implications of any questionable actions when the thought to do them arises. |
|46.8.8 - Watching your train of thought associations without jumping on board|
|( P90 ) Requires split-attention and remembering yourself then seeing the chain of associations that go through your head without going along with any of them and becoming absorbed in them and controled by them as wa all usually are. |
|( P91 ) Associations are how one thing Rings up another automatically. When a whole series of thoughts and feelings present themselves. They Make a network around centers.
We cant think in Old Ways, or else old associations WILL proceed. Hence, changes in ways of thinking ( repent ) are needed.
They can be studied from the side of the Moving center.
|126.96.36.199 - The meaning of Walking on Water|
|46.8.9 - Arguing with ourselves|
|( P92 ) Not very effective! this is the shadow boxing described above. It makes your enemy stronger! |
* R3 - The Way of a Pilgrim and The Pilgrim Continues His Way
CHAPTER 47 - Memory Techniques
|47.1 - Learning Types|
|47.1.1 - Simple Non-Associative Learning|
|188.8.131.52 - Habituation|
|( P93 ) In psychology, habituation is the psychological process in humans and animals in which there is a decrease in behavioral response to a stimulus after repeated exposure to that stimulus over a duration of time.
Habituation is very similar to acclimation, in that repetition of certain behaviors that are rewarding to a life form will likely be continued, or ingrained in a habitual manner. For example, for all life forms on Earth, obtaining life-sustaining matter that exists externally from those beings, such as food, water and shelter, is a habituated behavior. The learning underlying habituation is a fundamental or basic process of biological systems and does not require conscious motivation or awareness to occur. Indeed, without habituation we would be unable to distinguish meaningful information from the background, unchanging information. Habituation has been shown in essentially every species of animal, including the large protozoan Stentor coeruleus. 
Psychological significance in humans
Habituation need not be conscious - for example, a short time after a human dresses in clothing, the stimulus clothing creates disappears from our nervous systems and we become unaware of it. In this way, habituation is used to ignore any continual stimulus, presumably because changes in stimulus level are normally far more important than absolute levels of stimulation. This sort of habituation can occur through neural adaptation in sensory nerves themselves and through negative feedback from the brain to peripheral sensory organs.
Habituation is frequently used in testing psychological phenomena. Both adults and infants gaze lesser at a particular visual stimulus the longer it is presented. The amount of time spent looking at a new stimulus after habituation to the initial stimulus indicates the effective similarity of the two stimuli. It is also used to discover the resolution of perceptual systems. For instance, by habituating someone to one stimulus, and then observing responses to similar ones, one can detect the smallest degree of difference that is detectable.
Dishabituation is when a second stimulus is presented in unison with a primary stimulus, and may briefly increase habituated response toward the primary stimulus until an organism distinguishes, or discriminates the differences between two different stimuli. Dishabituation has been demonstrated as being inherently different than psychological sensitization.
|184.108.40.206 - Sensitization|
|( P94 ) Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus. An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of peripheral nerves that will occur if a person rubs his arm continuously. After a while, this stimulation will create a warm sensation that will eventually turn painful. The pain is the result of the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning the person that the stimulation is harmful. Sensitization is thought to underlie both adaptive as well as maladaptive learning processes in the organism.
Types of sensitization
Sensitization primarily refers to AMPA receptor-associated sensitization. However, there are others as well, e.g. sensitization in drug addiction.
A common mechanism for the AMPA receptor-associated types of sensitization is the activation of AMPA receptors on the post-synaptic membrane. Repeated stimulation of the pre-synaptic neuron will cause glutamate to be released into the synaptic cleft. The increased release of glutamate will activate the AMPA receptors. AMPA receptors will allow for additional Na+ to enter the post-synaptic neuron, thus increasing its depolarization. This will cause the post-synaptic neuron to fire continuously, thereby creating a prolonged response. It is possible that the intensity of the stimulation is what distinguishes the different types of sensitization, in that kindling may require more intense stimulation than LTP. Another possibility are alterations in the function of inhibiting GABAergic neurons. This, however, has not been established.
For example, electrical or chemical stimulation of the rat hippocampus causes strengthening of synaptic signals, a process known as long-term potentiation or LTP. LTP is thought to underlie memory and learning in the human brain.
A different type of sensitization is that of kindling, where repeated stimulation of hippocampal or amygdaloid neurons in the limbic system eventually leads to seizures in laboratory animals. Having been sensitized, very little stimulation is required to produce the seizures. Thus, kindling has been suggested as a model for temporal lobe epilepsy in humans, where stimulation of a repetitive type (flickering lights for instance) can cause epileptic seizures. Often, people suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy report symptoms of negative affect such as anxiety and depression that might result from limbic dysfunction.
A third type is central sensitization, where nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord become sensitized by peripheral tissue damage or inflammation. This type of sensitization has been suggested as a possible causal mechanism for chronic pain conditions. These various types indicate that sensitization may underlie both pathological and adaptive functions in the organism.
Drug sensitization occurs in drug addiction, and is defined as an increased effect of drug following repeated doses (the opposite of drug tolerance). Addiction may also be related to increased (sensitized) drug craving when environmental stimuli associated with drug taking, or drug cues, are encountered. This process may contribute to the risk for relapse in addicts attempting to quit  Such sensitization involves changes in brain mesolimbic dopamine transmission, as well as a molecule inside mesolimbic neurons called delta FosB.
Sensitization has been implied as a causal or maintaining mechanism in a wide range of apparently unrelated pathologies including substance abuse and dependence, allergies, asthma, and some medically unexplained syndromes such as fibromyalgia and multiple chemical sensitivity. Sensitization has also been suggested in relation to psychological disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder, panic anxiety and mood disorders.  
Eric Kandel was one of the first to describe sensitization based on his experiments observing gill withdrawal of the seaslug Aplysia in the 1960s and 1970s. Kandel and his colleagues showed that after habituation from siphon touching (gill withdrawal response weakened), applying a paired noxious electrical stiumlus to the tail and a touch to the siphon, gill withdrawal was once again noted. After this sensitization, applying a light touch to the siphon, absent of noxious stimulus to the tail, Aplysia produced a strong gill withdrawal response. When tested several days after the initial trials, this response was still manifest (After Squire and Kandel, 1999). In 2000, Eric Kandel was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his research in neuronal learning processes.
|47.1.2 - Associative Learning|
|220.127.116.11 - Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning)|
|( P95 ) Classical Conditioning (also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov  . The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under investigation. Pavlov referred to this as a Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Conversely, presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov called this the Conditioned Response (CR).
Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning, and the foot contraction conditioning of Hermissenda crassicornis.
Diagram representing forward conditioning. The time interval increases from left to right.
During forward conditioning the onset of the CS precedes the onset of the US. Two common forms of forward conditioning are delay and trace conditioning.
During trace conditioning the CS and US do not overlap. Instead, the CS is presented, a period of time is allowed to elapse during which no stimuli are presented, and then the US is presented. The stimulus free period is called the trace interval. It may also be called the "conditioning interval"
During simultaneous conditioning, the CS and US are presented and terminate at the same time.
Backward conditioning occurs when a conditioned stimulus immediately follows an unconditioned stimulus. Unlike traditional conditioning models, in which the conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus, the conditioned response tends to be inhibitory. This is because the conditioned stimulus serves as a signal that the unconditioned stimulus has ended, rather than a reliable method of predicting the future occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus.
The onset of the US precedes the onset of the CS. Rather than being a reliable predictor of an impending US (such as in Forward Conditioning), the CS actually serves as a signal that the US has ended. As a result, the CR is said to be inhibitory.
The US is presented at regularly timed intervals, and CR acquisition is dependent upon correct timing of the interval between US presentations. The background, or context, can serve as the CS in this example.
The CS and US are not presented together. Usually they are presented as independent trials that are separated by a variable, or pseudo-random, interval. This procedure is used to study non-associative behavioral responses, such as sensitization.
Main article: Extinction (psychology)
The CS is presented in the absence of the US. This procedure is usually done after the CR has been acquired through Forward conditioning training. Eventually, the CR frequency is reduced to pre-training levels.
In addition to the simple procedures described above, some classical conditioning studies are designed to tap into more complex learning processes. Some common variations are discussed below.
Classical discrimination/reversal conditioning
In this procedure, two CSs and one US are typically used. The CSs may be the same modality (such as lights of different intensity), or they may be different modalities (such as auditory CS and visual CS). In this procedure, one of the CSs is designated CS+ and its presentation is always followed by the US. The other CS is designated CS- and its presentation is never followed by the US. After a number of trials, the organism learns to discriminate CS+ trials and CS- trials such that CRs are only observed on CS+ trials.
During Reversal Training, the CS+ and CS- are reversed and subjects learn to suppress responding to the previous CS+ and show CRs to the previous CS-.
Classical ISI discrimination conditioning
This is a discrimination procedure in which two different CSs are used to signal two different interstimulus intervals. For example, a dim light may be presented 30 seconds before a US, while a very bright light is presented 2 minutes before the US. Using this technique, organisms can learn to perform CRs that are appropriately timed for the two distinct CSs.
Latent inhibition conditioning
In this procedure, a CS is presented several times before paired CS-US training commences. The pre-exposure of the subject to the CS before paired training slows the rate of CR acquisition relative to organisms that are not CS pre-exposed. Also see Latent inhibition for applications.
Conditioned inhibition conditioning
Three phases of conditioning are typically used:
A CS (CS+) is not paired with a US until asymptotic CR levels are reached.
CS+/US trials are continued, but interspersed with trials on which the CS+ in compound with a second CS, but not with the US (i.e., CS+/CS- trials). Typically, organisms show CRs on CS+/US trials, but suppress responding on CS+/CS- trials.
In this retention test, the previous CS- is paired with the US. If conditioned inhibition has occurred, the rate of acquisition to the previous CS- should be impaired relative to organisms that did not experience Phase 2.
Main article: Blocking effect
This form of classical conditioning involves two phases.
A CS (CS1) is paired with a US.
A compund CS (CS1+CS2) is paired with a US.
A separate test for each CS (CS1 and CS2)is performed. The blocking effect is observed in a lack of conditioned response to CS2, suggesting that the first phase of training blocked the acquisition of the second CS.
Main article: Little Albert experiment
John B. Watson, founder of behaviourism, demonstrated classical conditioning empirically through experimentation using the Little Albert experiment in which a child ("Albert") was presented with a white rat to which was later paired with a loud noise. As the trials progressed, the child began showing signs of distress at the sight of the rat and other white objects, demonstrating that conditioning had taken place. Little Albert was also trained to be frightened of furry objects, like a stuffed animal and even a white coat.
Main article: Behaviour therapy
In human psychology, implications for therapies and treatments using classical conditioning differ from operant conditioning. Therapies associated with classical conditioning are aversion therapy, flooding and systematic desensitization.
Classical conditioning is short-term, usually requiring less time with therapists and less effort from patients, unlike humanistic therapies. The therapies mentioned are designed to cause either aversive feelings toward something, or to reduce unwanted fear and aversion. Classical conditioning is based on a
Theories of classical conditioning
There are two competing theories of how classical conditioning works. The first, stimulus-response theory, suggests that an association to the unconditioned stimulus is made with the conditioned stimulus within the brain, but without involving conscious thought. The second theory stimulus-stimulus theory involves cognitive activity, in which the conditioned stimulus is associated to the concept of the unconditioned stimulus, a subtle but important distinction.
Stimulus-response theory, referred to as S-R theory, is a theoretical model of behavioral psychology that suggests humans and other animals can learn to associate a new stimulus- the conditioned stimulus (CS)- with a pre-existing stimulus - the unconditioned stimulus (US), and can think, feel or respond to the CS as if it were actually the US.
The opposing theory, put forward by cognitive behaviorists, is stimulus-stimulus theory (S-S theory). Stimulus-stimulus theory, referred to as S-S theory, is a theoretical model of classical conditioning that suggests a cognitive component is required to understand classical conditioning and that stimulus-response theory is an inadequate model. It proposes that a cognitive component is at play. S-R theory suggests that an animal can learn to associate a conditioned stimulus (CS) such as a bell, with the impending arrival of food termed the unconditioned stimulus, resulting in an observable behavior such as salivation. Stimulus-stimulus theory suggests that instead the animal salivates to the bell because it is associated with the concept of food, which is a very fine but important distinction.
To test this theory, psychologist Robert Rescorla undertook the following experiment . Rats learned to associate a loud noise as the unconditioned stimulus, and a light as the conditioned stimulus. The response of the rats was to freeze and cease movement. What would happen then if the rats were habituated to the US? S-R theory would suggest that the rats would continue to respond to the US, but if S-S theory is correct, they would be habituated to the concept of a loud sound (danger), and so would not freeze to the CS. The experimental results suggest that S-S was correct, as the rats no longer froze when exposed to the signal light.  His theory still continues and is applied in everyday life.
|18.104.22.168 - Operant Conditioning|
|( P96 ) Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning, or Pavlovian conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior. Operant behavior "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of respondent behaviors which are elicited by antecedent conditions. Behaviors conditioned via a classical conditioning procedure are not maintained by consequences.
total of four basic consequences, with the addition of a fifth procedure known as extinction (i.e. no change in consequences following a response)
It's important to note that organisms are not spoken of as being reinforced, punished, or extinguished; it is the response that is reinforced, punished, or extinguished. Additionally, reinforcement, punishment, and extinction are not terms whose use is restricted to the laboratory. Naturally occurring consequences can also be said to reinforce, punish, or extinguish behavior and are not always delivered by people.
Reinforcement is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with greater frequency.
Punishment is a consequence that causes a behavior to occur with less frequency.
Extinction is the lack of any consequence following a behavior. When a behavior is inconsequential, producing neither favorable nor unfavorable consequences, it will occur with less frequency. When a previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced with either positive or negative reinforcement, it leads to a decline in the response.
Four contexts of operant conditioning: Here the terms "positive" and "negative" are not used in their popular sense, but rather: "positive" refers to addition, and "negative" refers to subtraction. What is added or subtracted may be either reinforcement or punishment. Hence positive punishment is sometimes a confusing term, as it denotes the addition of punishment (such as spanking or an electric shock), a context that may seem very negative in the lay sense. The four procedures are:
Positive reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by a favorable stimulus (commonly seen as pleasant) that increases the frequency of that behavior. In the Skinner box experiment, a stimulus such as food or sugar solution can be delivered when the rat engages in a target behavior, such as pressing a lever.
Negative reinforcement occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus (commonly seen as unpleasant) thereby increasing that behavior's frequency. In the Skinner box experiment, negative reinforcement can be a loud noise continuously sounding inside the rat's cage until it engages in the target behavior, such as pressing a lever, upon which the loud noise is removed.
Positive punishment (also called "Punishment by contingent stimulation") occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by an aversive stimulus, such as introducing a shock or loud noise, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
Negative punishment (also called "Punishment by contingent withdrawal") occurs when a behavior (response) is followed by the removal of a favorable stimulus, such as taking away a child's toy following an undesired behavior, resulting in a decrease in that behavior.
Avoidance learning is a type of learning in which a certain behavior results in the cessation of an aversive stimulus. For example, performing the behavior of shielding one's eyes when in the sunlight (or going indoors) will help avoid the aversive stimulation of having light in one's eyes.
Extinction occurs when a behavior (response) that had previously been reinforced is no longer effective. In the Skinner box experiment, this is the rat pushing the lever and being rewarded with a food pellet several times, and then pushing the lever again and never receiving a food pellet again. Eventually the rat would cease pushing the lever.
Noncontingent reinforcement refers to delivery of reinforcing stimuli regardless of the organism's (aberrant) behavior. The idea is that the target behavior decreases because it is no longer necessary to receive the reinforcement. This typically entails time-based delivery of stimuli identified as maintaining aberrant behavior, which serves to decrease the rate of the target behavior. As no measured behavior is identified as being strengthened, there is controversy surrounding the use of the term noncontingent "reinforcement".
Biological correlates of operant conditioning
The first scientific studies identifying neurons that responded in ways that suggested they encode for conditioned stimuli came from work by Rusty Richardson and Mahlon deLong. They showed that nucleus basalis neurons, which release acetylcholine broadly throughout the cerebral cortex, are activated shortly after a conditioned stimulus, or after a primary reward if no conditioned stimulus exists. These neurons are equally active for positive and negative reinforcers, and have been demonstrated to cause plasticity in many cortical regions. Evidence also exists that dopamine is activated at similar times. The dopamine pathways encode positive reward only, not aversive reinforcement, and they project much more densely onto frontal cortex regions. Cholinergic projections, in contrast, are dense even in the posterior cortical regions like the primary visual cortex. A study of patients with Parkinson's disease, a condition attributed to the insufficient action of dopamine, further illustrates the role of dopamine in positive reinforcement. It showed that while off their medication, patients learned more readily with aversive consequences than with positive reinforcement. Patients who were on their medication showed the opposite to be the case, positive reinforcement proving to be the more effective form of learning when the action of dopamine is high.
Factors that alter the effectiveness of consequences
When using consequences to modify a response, the effectiveness of a consequence can be increased or decreased by various factors. These factors can apply to either reinforcing or punishing consequences.
Satiation: The effectiveness of a consequence will be reduced if the individual's "appetite" for that source of stimulation has been satisfied. Inversely, the effectiveness of a consequence will increase as the individual becomes deprived of that stimulus. If someone is not hungry, food will not be an effective reinforcer for behavior. Satiation is generally only a potential problem with primary reinforcers, those that do not need to be learned such as food and water.
Immediacy: After a response, how immediately a consequence is then felt determines the effectiveness of the consequence. More immediate feedback will be more effective than less immediate feedback. If someone's license plate is caught by a traffic camera for speeding and they receive a speeding ticket in the mail a week later, this consequence will not be very effective against speeding. But if someone is speeding and is caught in the act by an officer who pulls them over, then their speeding behavior is more likely to be affected.
Contingency: If a consequence does not contingently (reliably, or consistently) follow the target response, its effectiveness upon the response is reduced. But if a consequence follows the response consistently after successive instances, its ability to modify the response is increased. The schedule of reinforcement, when consistent, leads to faster learning. When the schedule is variable the learning is slower. Extinction is more difficult when learning occurred during intermittent reinforcement and more easily extinguished when learning occurred during a highly consistent schedule.
Size: This is a "cost-benefit" determinant of whether a consequence will be effective. If the size, or amount, of the consequence is large enough to be worth the effort, the consequence will be more effective upon the behavior. An unusually large lottery jackpot, for example, might be enough to get someone to buy a one-dollar lottery ticket (or even buying multiple tickets). But if a lottery jackpot is small, the same person might not feel it to be worth the effort of driving out and finding a place to buy a ticket. In this example, it's also useful to note that "effort" is a punishing consequence. How these opposing expected consequences (reinforcing and punishing) balance out will determine whether the behavior is performed or not.
Most of these factors exist for biological reasons. The biological purpose of the Principle of Satiation is to maintain the organism's homeostasis. When an organism has been deprived of sugar, for example, the effectiveness of the taste of sugar as a reinforcer is high. However, as the organism reaches or exceeds their optimum blood-sugar levels, the taste of sugar becomes less effective, perhaps even aversive.
The principles of Immediacy and Contingency exist for neurochemical reasons. When an organism experiences a reinforcing stimulus, dopamine pathways in the brain are activated. This network of pathways "releases a short pulse of dopamine onto many dendrites, thus broadcasting a rather global reinforcement signal to postsynaptic neurons." This results in the plasticity of these synapses allowing recently activated synapses to increase their sensitivity to efferent signals, hence increasing the probability of occurrence for the recent responses preceding the reinforcement. These responses are, statistically, the most likely to have been the behavior responsible for successfully achieving reinforcement. But when the application of reinforcement is either less immediate or less contingent (less consistent), the ability of dopamine to act upon the appropriate synapses is reduced.
Operant variability is what allows a response to adapt to new situations. Operant behavior is distinguished from reflexes in that its response topography (the form of the response) is subject to slight variations from one performance to another. These slight variations can include small differences in the specific motions involved, differences in the amount of force applied, and small changes in the timing of the response. If a subject's history of reinforcement is consistent, such variations will remain stable because the same successful variations are more likely to be reinforced than less successful variations. However, behavioral variability can also be altered when subjected to certain controlling variables.
An extinction burst will often occur when an extinction procedure has just begun. This consists of a sudden and temporary increase in the response's frequency , followed by the eventual decline and extinction of the behavior targeted for elimination. Take, as an example, a pigeon that has been reinforced to peck an electronic button. During its training history, every time the pigeon pecked the button, it will have received a small amount of bird seed as a reinforcer. So, whenever the bird is hungry, it will peck the button to receive food. However, if the button were to be turned off, the hungry pigeon will first try pecking the button just as it has in the past. When no food is forthcoming, the bird will likely try again... and again, and again. After a period of frantic activity, in which their pecking behavior yields no result, the pigeon's pecking will decrease in frequency.
The evolutionary advantage of this extinction burst is clear. In a natural environment, an animal that persists in a learned behavior, despite not resulting in immediate reinforcement, might still have a chance of producing reinforcing consequences if they try again. This animal would be at an advantage over another animal that gives up too easily.
Extinction-induced variability serves a similar adaptive role. When extinction begins, and if the environment allows for it, an initial increase in the response rate is not the only thing that can happen. Imagine a bell curve. The horizontal axis would represent the different variations possible for a given behavior. The vertical axis would represent the response's probability in a given situation. Response variants in the middle of the bell curve, at its highest point, are the most likely because those responses, according to the organism's experience, have been the most effective at producing reinforcement. The more extreme forms of the behavior would lie at the lower ends of the curve, to the left and to the right of the peak, where their probability for expression is low.
A simple example would be a person inside a room opening a door to exit. The response would be the opening of the door, and the reinforcer would be the freedom to exit. For each time that same person opens that same door, they do not open the door in the exact same way every time. Rather, each time they open the door a little differently: sometimes with less force, sometimes with more force; sometimes with one hand, sometimes with the other hand; sometimes more quickly, sometimes more slowly. Because of the physical properties of the door and its handle, there is a certain range of successful responses which are reinforced.
Now imagine in our example that the subject tries to open the door and it won't budge. This is when extinction-induced variability occurs. The bell curve of probable responses will begin to broaden, with more extreme forms of behavior becoming more likely. The person might now try opening the door with extra force, repeatedly twist the knob, try to hit the door with their shoulder, maybe even call for help or climb out a window. This is how extinction causes variability in behavior, in the hope that these new variations might be successful. For this reason, extinction-induced variability is an important part of the operant procedure of shaping.
|22.214.171.124.1 - Avoidance learning
|( P97 ) Avoidance learning
Avoidance training belongs to negative reinforcement schedules. The subject learns that a certain response will result in the termination or prevention of an aversive stimulus. There are two kinds of commonly used experimental settings: discriminated and free-operant avoidance learning.
Discriminated avoidance learning
In discriminated avoidance learning, a novel stimulus such as a light or a tone is followed by an aversive stimulus such as a shock (CS-US, similar to classical conditioning). During the first trials (called escape-trials) the animal usually experiences both the CS and the US, showing the operant response to terminate the aversive US. By the time, the animal will learn to perform the response already during the presentation of the CS thus preventing the aversive US from occurring. Such trials are called avoidance trials.
Free-operant avoidance learning
In this experimental session, no discrete stimulus is used to signal the occurrence of the aversive stimulus. Rather, the aversive stimulus (mostly shocks) are presented without explicit warning stimuli.
There are two crucial time intervals determining the rate of avoidance learning. This first one is called the S-S-interval (shock-shock-interval). This is the amount of time which passes during successive presentations of the shock (unless the operant response is performed). The other one is called the R-S-interval (response-shock-interval) which specifies the length of the time interval following an operant response during which no shocks will be delivered. Note that each time the organism performs the operant response, the R-S-interval without shocks begins anew.
Two-process theory of avoidance
This theory was originally established to explain learning in discriminated avoidance learning. It assumes two processes to take place. a) Classical conditioning of fear. During the first trials of the training, the organism experiences both CS and aversive US(escape-trials). The theory assumed that during those trials classical conditioning takes place by pairing the CS with the US. Because of the aversive nature of the US the CS is supposed to elicit a conditioned emotional reaction (CER) - fear. In classical conditioning, presenting a CS conditioned with an aversive US disrupts the organism's ongoing behavior. b) Reinforcement of the operant response by fear-reduction. Because during the first process, the CS signaling the aversive US has itself become aversive by eliciting fear in the organism, reducing this unpleasant emotional reaction serves to motivate the operant response. The organism learns to make the response during the US, thus terminating the aversive internal reaction elicited by the CS. An important aspect of this theory is that the term "Avoidance" does not really describe what the organism is doing. It does not "avoid" the aversive US in the sense of anticipating it. Rather the organism escapes an aversive internal state, caused by the CS.
One of the practical aspects of operant conditioning with relation to animal training is the use of shaping (reinforcing successive approximations and not reinforcing behavior past approximating), as well as chaining.
|47.1.3 - Imprinting|
|( P98 ) Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject.
The best known form of imprinting is filial imprinting, in which a young animal learns the characteristics of its parent. It is most obvious in nidifugous birds, who imprint on their parents and then follow them around. It was first reported in domestic chickens, by the 19th century amateur biologist Douglas Spalding. It was rediscovered by the early ethologist Oskar Heinroth, and studied extensively and popularised by his disciple Konrad Lorenz working with greylag geese. Lorenz demonstrated how incubator-hatched geese would imprint on the first suitable moving stimulus they saw within what he called a "critical period" between 13-16 hours shortly after hatching. Most famously, the goslings would imprint on Lorenz himself (more specifically, on his wading boots), and he is often depicted being followed by a gaggle of geese who had imprinted on him. Filial imprinting is not restricted to animals that are able to follow their parents, however; in child development the term is used to refer to the process by which a baby learns who its mother and father are. The process is recognised as beginning in the womb, when the unborn baby starts to recognise its parents' voices (Kissilevsky et al., 2003).
The filial imprinting of birds was a primary technique used to create the movie Le Peuple Migrateur, which contains a great deal of footage of migratory birds in flight. The birds imprinted on handlers, who wore yellow jackets and honked horns constantly. The birds were then trained to fly along with a variety of aircraft, primarily ultralights.Also in a book
Imprinted geese and cranes flying with an ultralight aircraft
The Italian hang-glider pilot Angelo d'Arrigo extended this technique. D'Arrigo noted that the flight of a non-motorised hang-glider is very similar to the flight patterns of migratory birds: both use updrafts of hot air (thermal currents) to gain altitude which then permits soaring flight over distance. He used this fact to enable the re-introduction into the wild of threatened species of raptors.
Birds which are hatched in captivity have no mentor birds to teach them their traditional migratory routes. D'Arrigo had one solution to this problem. The chicks hatched under the wing of his glider, and imprinted on him. Subsequently, he taught the fledglings to fly and to hunt. The young birds followed him not only on the ground (as with Lorenz) but also in the air as he took the path of various migratory routes. He flew across the Sahara and over the Mediterranean Sea to Sicily with eagles, from Siberia to Iran (5,500 km) with a flock of Siberian cranes, and over Mount Everest with Nepalese eagles. In 2006, he worked with a condor in South America.
In a similar project, orphaned Canada Geese were trained to their normal migration route by the Canadian ultralight enthusiast Bill Lishman, as shown in the fact-based movie drama Fly Away Home.
Sexual imprinting is the process by which a young animal learns the characteristics of a desirable mate. For example, male zebra finches appear to prefer mates with the appearance of the female bird that rears them, rather than mates of their own type (Immelmann, 1972). The famous psychologist John Money called it the lovemap.
Sexual imprinting on inanimate objects is a popular theory concerning the development of sexual fetishism. For example, according to this theory, imprinting on shoes or boots (as with Lorenz' geese) would be the cause of shoe fetishism.
Reverse sexual imprinting is also seen: when two people live in close domestic proximity during the first few years in the life of either one, both are desensitized to later close sexual attraction. This phenomenon, known as the Westermarck effect, was first formally described by Finnish anthropologist Edvard Westermarck. The Westermarck effect has since been observed in many places and cultures, including in the Israeli kibbutz system, and the Chinese Shim-pua marriage customs, as well as in biological-related families.
In the case of the Israeli kibbutzim (collective farms), children were reared somewhat communally in peer groups—groups based on age, not biological relation. A study of the marriage patterns of these children later in life revealed that out of the nearly 3,000 marriages that occurred across the kibbutz system, only fourteen were between children from the same peer group. Of those fourteen, none had been reared together during the first six years of life. This result provides evidence not only that the Westermarck effect is demonstrable, but that it operates during the critical period from birth to the age of six (Shepher, 1983).
When close proximity during this critical period does not occur—for example, where a brother and sister are brought up separately, never meeting one another—they may find one another highly sexually attractive when they meet as adults. This phenomenon is known as genetic sexual attraction. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that the Westermarck effect evolved because it suppressed inbreeding. This attraction may also be seen with cousin couples.
Westermarck and Freud
Freud argued that as children, members of the same family naturally lust for one another, making it necessary for societies to create incest taboos, but Westermarck argued the reverse, that the taboos themselves arise naturally as products of innate attitudes.
|47.1.4 - Observational Learning|
|( P99 ) Observational learning (also known as: vicarious learning or social learning or modeling or monkey see, monkey do) is learning that occurs as a function of observing, retaining and, in the case of imitation learning, replicating novel behavior executed by others. It is most associated with the work of psychologist Albert Bandura, who implemented some of the seminal studies in the area and initiated social learning theory. It involves the process of learning to copy or model the action of another through observing another doing it. Further research has been used to show a connection between observational learning and both classical and operant conditioning. 
There are 4 key processes of observational learning. 1.) Attention: To learn through observation, you must pay attention to another person's behavior and its consequences. 2.) Retention: Store a mental representation of what you have witnessed in your memory. 3.) Reproduction: Enacting a modeled response depends on your ability to reproduce the response by converting your stored mental images into overt behavior. 4.) Motivation: Finally, you are unlikely to reproduce an observed response unless you are motivated to do so. Your motivation depends on whether you get benefits from responding that action. 
Many mistake observational learning with imitation. The two terms are different in the sense that observational learning leads to a change in behavior due to observing a model. This does not mean that the behavior exhibited by the model is duplicated. It could mean that the observer would do the opposite of the model behavior because he or she has learned the consequence of that particular behavior. Consider the case of learning what NOT to do. In such a case, there is observational learning without imitation.
Although observational learning can take place at any stage in life, it is thought to be particularly important during childhood, particularly as authority becomes important. The best role models are those a year or two older for observational learning. Because of this, social learning theory has influenced debates on the effect of television violence and parental role models. Bandura's Bobo doll experiment is widely cited in psychology as a demonstration of observational learning and demonstrated that children are more likely to engage in violent play with a life size rebounding doll after watching an adult do the same. However, it may be that children will only reproduce a model's behavior if it has been reinforced. This may be the problem with television because it was found, by Otto Larson and his coworkers (1968), that 56% of the time children's television characters achieve their goals through violent acts.
Observational learning allows for learning without any change in behavior and has therefore been used as an argument against strict behaviorism which argued that behavior change must occur for new behaviors to be acquired. Bandura noted that "social imitation may hasten or short-cut the acquisition of new behaviors without the necessity of reinforcing successive approximations as suggested by Skinner (1953)."
It is possible to treat observational learning as merely a variation of operant training. According to this view, first proposed by Neal Miller and John Dollard, the changes in an observer's behavior are due to the consequences of the observer's behavior, not those of the model. ""
As an interesting aside, there are a number of variables which have confounded the study of observational learning in animals. One of these is the Venus effect in which animals are sexually stimulated by the model and this interferes with the ability to observe behavior thereby limiting the ability to make associations based on the behavior of the model. (See Warden and Jackson 1935)
Bandura called the process of social learning modeling and gave four conditions required for a person to successfully model the behavior of someone else:
Attention to the model
A person must first pay attention to a person engaging in a certain behavior (the model).
Retention of details
Once attending to the observed behavior, the observer must be able to effectively remember what the model has done.
The observer must be able to replicate the behavior being observed. For example, juggling cannot be effectively learned by observing a model juggler if the observer does not already have the ability to perform the component actions (throwing and catching a ball).
Motivation and Opportunity
The observer must be motivated to carry out the action they have observed and remembered, and must have the opportunity to do so. For example, a suitably skilled person must want to replicate the behavior of a model juggler, and needs to have an appropriate number of items to juggle at hand.
Effect on behavior This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (September 2007)
Social learning may affect behavior in the following ways:
Teaches new behaviors
Increases or decreases the frequency with which previously learned behaviors are carried out
Can encourage previously forbidden behaviors
Can increase or decrease similar behaviors. For example, observing a model excelling in piano playing may encourage an observer to excel in playing the saxophone.
|47.1.5 - Play|
|( P100 ) Play generally describes behavior which has no particular end in itself, but improves performance in similar situations in the future. This is seen in a wide variety of vertebrates besides humans, but is mostly limited to mammals and birds. Cats are known to play with a ball of string when young, which gives them experience with catching prey. Besides inanimate objects, animals may play with other members of their own species or other animals, such as orcas playing with seals they have caught. Play involves a significant cost to animals, such as increased vulnerability to predators and the risk of injury and possibly infection. It also consumes energy, so there must be significant benefits associated with play for it to have evolved. Play is generally seen in younger animals, suggesting a link with learning. However, it may also have other benefits not associated directly with learning, for example improving physical fitness.
As a theoretical concept, play is challenging to define. Rather than collapsing all views of this quality into a singular definition, play may be best envisioned as descriptive of a range of activities that may be ascribed to humans and non-humans. In general discourse, people use the word "play" as a contrast to other parts of their lives: sleep, eating, washing, work, rituals, etc. Different types of specialists may also use the word "play" in different ways. Play therapists evoke the expansive definition of the term in Play Therapy and Sandbox Play. Play is cast in the modal of Sacred Play within Transpersonal Psychology.
Sociologist David Reisman proffered that play is a quality (as different from an activity). Mark Twain commented that play and work are words used to describe the same activity under different circumstances. This viewpoint is reflected in the work of anthropologists who model a distinction between "play" and "nonplay" in different cultures.
Playing Children, by Chinese Song Dynasty artist Su Hanchen, c. 1150 AD.
Concerted endeavor has been made to identify the qualities of play, but this task is not without its ambiguities. For example, play is commonly defined as a frivolous and nonserious activity; yet when watching children at play, one is impressed at their transfixed seriousness and entrancing absorption with which they engage in it. Other criteria of play include a relaxed pace and freedom versus compulsion. Yet play seems to have its intrinsic constraints as in, "You're not playing fair."
People at the National Institute for Play are creating a clinical, scientific framework for play. On their website they introduce seven patterns of play (along with reference sources for each) which indicate the huge range of types of activities and states of being which play encompasses.
James Findlay, a Social Educator, defines play as a meta intelligence, suggesting that play is behind, together with, and changes, the various multiple intelligences we have. 
When play is structured and goal orientated it is often done as a game. Play can also be seen as the activity of rehearsing life events e.g. young animals play fighting. These and other concepts or rhetorics of play are discussed at length by Brian Sutton-Smith in the book The Ambiguity of Play. Sometimes play is dangerous, such as in extreme sports. This type of play could be considered stunt play, whether engaging in play frighting, sky-diving, or riding a device at high speed in an unusual manner.
The seminal text in play studies is Homo Ludens by Johan Huizinga. Huizinga defined play as follows:
Summing up the formal characteristic of play, we might call it a free activity standing quite consciously outside ‘ordinary’ life as being ‘not serious’ but at the same time absorbing the player intensely and utterly. It is an activity connected with no material interest, and no profit can be gained by it. It proceeds within its own proper boundaries of time and space according to fixed rules and in an orderly manner. It promotes the formation of social groupings that tend to surround themselves with secrecy and to stress the difference from the common world by disguise or other means.
This definition of play as constituting a separate and independent sphere of human activity is sometimes referred to as the "magic circle" notion of play, and attributed to Huizinga, who does make reference to the term at some points in Homo Ludens. According to Huizinga, within play spaces, human behavior is structured by very different rules: e.g. kicking (and only kicking) a ball in one direction or another, using physical force to impede another player (in a way which might be illegal outside the context of the game).
Another classic in play theory is Man, Play and Games by Roger Caillois. Caillois borrows much of his definition from Huizinga. Caillois coined several formal sub-categories of play, such as alea (games of chance) and ilinx (vertigo or thrill-seeking play).
According to Stephen Nachmanovitch, play is the root and foundation of creativity in the arts and sciences as well as in daily life.
Improvisation, composition, writing, painting, theater, invention, all creative acts are forms of play, the starting place of creativity in the human growth cycle, and one of the great primal life functions. 
A notable contemporary play theorist is Jesper Juul who works on both pure play theory and the application of this theory to Computer game studies. The theory of play and its relationship with rules and game design is also extensively discussed by Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman in their book: Rules of Play : Game Design Fundamentals.
In computer games the word gameplay is often used to describe the concept of play. Play can also be sexual play between two persons, e.g., Flirting." In music, to "play" may mean to produce sound on a musical instrument, including performance or solitary reproduction of a particular musical composition through one's personal use of such an instrument or by actuating an electrical or mechanical reproduction device.
Symbolic play uses one thing to stand for another and shows the child's ability to create mental images. There are three types of symbolic play, dramatic play, constructive play, and playing games with rules.
Childhood and play
Play is freely chosen, intrinsically motivated and personally directed. Playing has been long recognized as a critical aspect of Child development. Some of the earliest studies of play started in the 1890s with G. Stanley Hall, the father of the child study movement that sparked an interest in the developmental, mental and behavioral world of babies and children. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published a study in 2006 entitled: "The Importance of Play in Promoting Healthy Child Development and Maintaining Strong Parent-Child Bonds". The report states: "free and unstructured play is healthy and - in fact - essential for helping children reach important social, emotional, and cognitive developmental milestones as well as helping them manage stress and become resilient" 
Many of the most prominent researchers in the field of psychology (Jean Piaget, William James, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Lev Vygotsky, etc.) have viewed play as endemic to the human species.
Play is explicitly recognized in Article 31 of The Convention on the Rights of the Child (adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations, November 29, 1989). which states:
Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.
Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activities.
Childhood 'play' is also seen by Sally Jenkinson (author of The Genius of Play) to be an intimate and integral part of childhood development. "In giving primacy to adult knowledge, to our 'grown-up' ways of seeing the world, have we forgotten how to value other kinds of wisdom? Do we still care about the small secret corners of children's wisdom?"
Modern research in the field of 'affective neuroscience' has uncovered important links between role playing and neurogenesis in the brain.(Panksepp, Affective Neuroscience 98). Sociologist Roger Caillois coined the phrase ilinx to describe the momentary disruption of perception that comes from forms of physical play that disorient the senses, especially balance.
In addition evolutionary psychologists have begun to expound the phylogenetic relationship between higher intelligence in humans and its relationship to play.
Stevanne Auerbach mentions the role of play therapy in treating children suffering from traumas, emotional issues, and other problems. She also emphasizes the importance of toys with high play value for child development and the role of the parent in evaluating toys and being the child's play guide.
Sudbury model of democratic education schools assert that play is a big part of life at their schools where it is seen as a serious business. They maintain that play is always serious for kids, as well as for adults who haven't forgotten how to play, and much of the learning going on at these schools is done through play. So they don't interfere with it. Hence play flourishes at all ages, and the graduates who leave these schools go out into the world knowing how to give their all to whatever they're doing, and still remembering how to laugh and enjoy life as it comes. 
|47.1.6 - Enculturation|
|( P101 ) Enculturation is the process by which a person learns the requirements of the culture by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviours that are appropriate or necessary in that culture. The influences which as part of this process limit, direct or shape the individual, whether deliberately of not, include parents, other adults, and peers. If successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values and rituals of the culture.
The process of enculturation is related to socialization. In some academic fields, socialization refers to the deliberate shaping of the individual, in others, the word may be used to cover both deliberate and informal enculturation.
Conrad Phillip Kottak (in Window on Humanity ) writes:
Enculturation is the process where the culture that is currently established teaches an individual the accepted norms and values of the culture or society in which the individual lives. The individual can become an accepted member and fulfill the needed functions and roles of the group. Most importantly the individual knows and establishes a context of boundaries and accepted behavior that dictates what is acceptable and not acceptable within the framework of that society. It teaches the individual their role within society as well as what is accepted behavior within that society and lifestyle"
Enculturation can be conscious or unconscious, therefore can support both the Marxist and the hegemonic arguments. There are three ways a person learns a culture. Direct teaching of a culture is done, this is what happens when you don't pay attention, mostly by the parents , when a person is told to do something because it is right and to not do something because it is bad. For example, when children ask for something, they are constantly asked "What do you say?" and the child is expected to remember to say "please." The second conscious way a person learns a culture is to watch others around them and to emulate their behavior. An example would be using different slang with different cliques in school. Enculturation also happens unconsciously, through events and behaviors that prevail in their culture. All three kinds of culturation happen simultaneously and all the time.
Enculturation helps mold a person into an acceptable member of society. Culture influences everything that a person does, whether they are aware of it or not. Enculturation is a lifelong process that helps unify people. Even as a culture changes, core beliefs, values, worldviews, and child-rearing practices stay the same. How many times has a parent said "If all your friends jumped off a bridge, would you?" when their child wanted to fit in with the crowd? Both are playing roles in the enculturation. The child wants to be included in the subculture of their peers, and the parent wants to instill individualism in the child, through direct teaching. Not only does one become encultured, but also makes someone else encultured.
Enculturation is sometimes referred to as acculturation, a word which recently has been used to more distinctively refer only to exchanges of cultural features with foreign cultures. Note that this is a recent development, as acculturation in certain pre-Wikipedia literatures has the same meaning as enculturation.
Acclimation is adaption to the physical environment, such as to the local climate. When used less strictly, these terms are nearly synonymous: acclimation, acculturation, and enculturation.
Socialization in the study of animal and human behavior is the process by which human beings or animals learn to adopt the behavior patterns of the community in which they live.
Education is a social science that encompasses teaching and learning specific knowledge, beliefs, and skills. Formal education may play a role in enculturation, even though there may be multi-cultural goals.
|47.1.7 - Multimedia learning|
|( P102 ) Multimedia learning is the common name used to describe the cognitive theory of multimedia learning This theory encompasses several principles of learning with multimedia.
The Modality principle
When learning with multimedia the brain must simultaneously encode two different types of information, an auditory stimulus and a visual stimulus. One might expect that these competing sources of information would tend to overwhelm or overload the learner. However, psychological research has shown that verbal information is in fact better remembered when accompanied by a visual image. Baddeley and Hitch proposed a theory of working memory in 1974 which has two largely independent subcomponents that tend to work in parallel - one visual and one verbal/acoustic. This allows us to simultaneously process information coming from our eyes and ears. Thus a learner is not necessarily overwhelmed or overloaded by multimodal instruction, and it can in fact be beneficial.
The finding that items presented both visually and verbally are better remembered gave rise to dual-coding theory, first proposed by Paivio and later applied to multimedia by Richard Mayer and his associates. Mayer has shown learners are better able to transfer their learning given multimodal instruction. Mayer explains the modality effect from an information processing/cognitive load perspective.
In a series of studies Mayer and his colleagues tested Paivio’s dual-coding theory, with multimedia. They repeatedly found that students learning given multimedia with animation and narration consistently did better on transfer questions than those who learn from animation and text-based materials. That is, they were significantly better when it came to applying what they had learned after receiving multimedia rather than mono-media (visual only) instruction. These results were then later confirmed by other groups of researchers.
Initially the instructional content of these multimedia learning studies was limited to logical scientific processes that centered on cause-and-effect systems like automobile braking systems, how a bicycle pump works, or cloud formation. But eventually it was found that the modality effect could be extended to other domains, which were not necessarily cause-and-effect based systems.
Information then can and should be encoded as both as visually and auditory (narration). If verbal information is encoded auditorily it reduces the cognitive load of the learner and they are better able to handle that incoming information. Mayer has since called this the “Modality effect,” or the Modality Principle. This was one of the many principles of his “Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning”.Example: To apply this modality principle to PowerPoint, for instance, consider transferring some of your bulleted text to visuals if possible.
This will help learners:
pay attention and;
understand and learn the material you are covering.
The Redundancy principle
According to this principle: "Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and on-screen text."
Thus it’s better to eliminate redundant material. This is because learners do not learn as well, when they both hear and see the same verbal message during a presentation. This is a special case of the Split attention effect of Sweller and Chandler.
Spatial Contiguity Principle - "Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen."
Temporal Contiguity Principle-"Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively."
Coherence Principle - "Students learn better when extraneous material is excluded rather than included."
Individual Differences Principle- "Design effects are stronger for low-knowledge learners than for high knowledge learners, and for high-spatial learners rather than for low-spatial learners."
Challenges to the Application of Principles
Not all research has found that the principles of multimedia learning apply generally outside of laboratory conditions. For example, Muller, Lee, and Sharma found that the coherence principle did not transfer to an authentic learning environment. In their study, adding approximately 50% additional extraneous but interesting material did not result in any significant difference in learner performance. These authors suggest that additional interesting information may help maintain the learner's interest in authentic learning environments
|47.1.8 - Rote Learning|
|( P103 ) Rote learning is a learning technique which avoids understanding of a subject and instead focuses on memorization. The major practice involved in rote learning is learning by repetition. The idea is that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more one repeats it.
Rote learning is widely used in the mastery of foundational knowledge. Examples include, phonics in reading, the periodic table in chemistry, multiplication tables in mathematics, anatomy in medicine, cases or statutes in law, basic formulas in any science, etc. Rote learning, by definition, eschews comprehension, however, and consequently, it is an ineffective tool in mastering any complex subject at an advanced level. However, rote learning is still useful in passing exams. If exam papers are not well designed, it is possible for someone with good memorization techniques to pass the test without any meaningful comprehension of the subject. However, learning the context of a particular topic can make the subject more memorable.
Rote learning vs. actual thinking
Rote learning is sometimes disparaged with the derogative terms parrot fashion, regurgitation, cramming, or mugging because one who engages in rote learning may give the wrong impression of having understood what they have written or said. It is strongly discouraged by many new curriculum standards. For example, science and mathematics standards in the United States specifically emphasize the importance of deep understanding (deep structure) over the mere recall of facts, which is seen to be less important, although advocates of traditional education have criticized the new standards as slighting learning basic facts and elementary arithmetic, and replacing content with process-based skills.
"When calculators can do multidigit long division in a microsecond, graph complicated functions at the push of a button, and instantaneously calculate derivatives and integrals, serious questions arise about what is important in the mathematics curriculum and what it means to learn mathematics. More than ever, mathematics must include the mastery of concepts instead of mere memorization and the following of procedures. More than ever, school mathematics must include an understanding of how to use technology to arrive meaningfully at solutions to problems instead of endless attention to increasingly outdated computational tedium." -National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Commonsense Facts to Clear the Air
A December 2006 study of Tennessee State achievement analyzed scores in math, science, reading and social studies of about 4000 middle school students over three years. Students were divided on the basis of whether or not they had hands-on trained teachers. This study found increased scores in science, social studies and math for students who had a hands-on science trained teacher for at least one year.
Eugène Ionesco commented upon rote learning in his play "The Lesson":
Professor: [...] unless you can comprehend the primary elements, how do you expect to be able to calculate mentally [...] how much, for example, are three billion seven hundred fifty-five million nine hundred ninety-eight thousand two hundred fifty one, multiplied by five billion one hundred sixty-two million three hundred and three thousand five hundred and eight? Pupil [very quickly]: That makes nineteen quintillion three hundred eighty-nine quadrillion six hundred and two trillion nine hundred forty-seven billion one hundred seventy-nine million one hundred sixty-four thousand five hundred and eight ... [...] Professor [Stupefied]: But how did you know that, if you don't know the principles of aritmetical reasoning? Pupil: It's easy. Not being able to rely on my reasoning, I've memorized all the products of all possible multiplications.
Rote learning as a necessity
However, with some material rote learning is the only way to learn it in a timely manner; for example, when learning the Greek alphabet or the vocabulary of a foreign language. Similarly, when learning the conjugation of foreign irregular verbs, the morphology is often too subtle to be learned explicitly in a short time. However, as in the alphabet example, learning where the alphabet came from helps one to grasp the concept of it and therefore memorize it. (Native speakers and speakers with a lot of experience usually get an intuitive grasp of those subtle rules and are able to conjugate even irregular verbs that they have never heard before.)
The source transmission could be auditory or visual, and is usually in the form of short bits such as rhyming phrases (but rhyming is not a prerequisite), rather than chunks of text large enough to make lengthy paragraphs. Brevity is not always the case with rote learning. For example, many Americans can recite their National Anthem, or even the much more lengthy Preamble to the United States Constitution. Their ability to do so can be attributed, at least in some part, to having been assimilated by rote learning. The repeated stimulus of hearing it recited in public, on TV, at a sporting event, etc. has caused the mere sound of the phrasing of the words and inflections to be "written", as if hammer-to-stone, into the long-term memory. Memorization is not learning. Rote learning is considered bad for children, because it can create bad studying habits at an early age.
Rote learning's complementary role
Rather than viewing rote memorization as something opposed to understanding, it can be viewed in a complementary role. As the left hand is to the right so is the memory to the understanding and reason. Memorized facts serve as the grist in the mill of the understanding which can be recalled and processed or combined for new unique conclusions when needed. Any theory of learning that tries to oppose these two faculties to one another will suffer a great handicap.
By nation and culture This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2008)
The system is widely practiced in schools across India, Pakistan, China, Singapore (which is often criticized for its inflexible education system), Japan (where rote learning is fundamental in learning to read and write kanji from a young age), Romania, Turkey, Malta and Greece. Some of these nations are admired for their high test scores in international comparisons with regards to other nations around the world. At the same time, progressive reforms such as Outcomes-based education which have put an emphasis on eliminating rote learning in favor of deep understanding have produced a storm of controversy as a generation of students are failing new math assessments which were aimed at increasing math performance. Some texts such as the widely controversial TERC completely omit memorization or even presentation of standard elementary arithmetic methods. Xiaping Li (2006) seminal work looks specifically to the effects of rote learning in second language learning in Taiwan. He notes Chinese learners hold high the tradition of rote learning as being an integral part of their culture.
However, in Singapore, with the introduction of the integrated programme, the government is obviously making attempts to move away from rote learning, at least for the more able students.
In the United States
New curriculum standards from the NCTM and National Science Education Standards call for more emphasis on active learning, critical thinking and communication over recall of facts. In many fields such as mathematics and science it is still a matter of controversy as to whether rote memorization of facts such as the multiplication table or boiling point of water are still necessary. Some education agencies which embraced the new standards are revisiting them in response to sharp criticism from those who believe that future generations should learn at least as much knowledge as previous generations have been taught, rather than just "how to think". It is countered that thinking skills alone will not be useful without a base of memorized facts to work with, and that it is quicker to recall from memory than to have to refer to a calculator, reference book, or internet article.
In the United Nations Arab human development report for 2004 the Arab researchers claim that rote learning is a major contributing factor to the lack of progress in science and research & development in the Arab countries. Asian nations, though scoring well on skill tests, are also studying standards of nations such as the United States to increase innovation and creativity. Studies of math skill advantages of Asian students show them to excel in basic skills, but not in complex problem solving not easily solved with standard methods.
Many religions contain vast amount of scriptures, commentaries and even commentaries on classical commentaries. Rote learning is prevalent in many religious schools throughout the world. This is partly due to the fact that most major religions appeared before the emergence of print.
Most Dharmatic religions such as Hinduism or Buddhism initially transmitted their scriptural knowledge through oral transmission without resort to text. This was done by converting verse into chant and repeating it to commit to memory. In Abrahamic religions, Jewish yeshivot or chederim (plural of cheder) use rote learning when teaching children Torah, Muslim madrasas utilize it in memorising Koran. A person who has memorised the entire Koran is known as Hafiz. In pre enlightenment Europe, memorisation techniques were known as Method of loci, mainly practiced in monastery and university, where divinity were taught. These skills were highly praised and they were known to be extensive allay of memorisation technique such as memory palace.
After the emergence of printing press, the memorisation of the entire scriptures was no longer an essential requirement of being a religious teacher. Rote learning is still used in various degrees, especially by young children, the main purpose being to memorize and retain as much textual material as possible, to prepare a student for a more analytical learning in the future.
This term can also refer to learning music by ear, a practice used with those who cannot (yet) read musical notation. However, many music teachers make a clear distinction between the two approaches. Specialised forms of rote learning have also been used in Vedic chanting to preserve the intonation and lexical accuracy of texts by oral tradition. The Suzuki Method's underlying key is rote learning.
The Suzuki Method and rote learning
As outlined in Edward Kreitman's book "Teaching From The Balance Point", there is a clear difference between rote learning and learning by ear, which is in fact the more important skill developed by the Suzuki method. In chapter two, "Rote Versus Note", this difference is explained:
...I believe that we need to examine three different approaches to learning.
Learning by rote: Using a specific set of instructions to produce the desired result
Learning by reading: Using symbolism on the printed page to learn the sequence of notes
Learning by ear: Using the "mind's ear", together with a few simple skills and a basic understanding of the logic of the instrument, to figure out any piece
An illustration of these three approaches, and how they relate to learning music, follows. The author shows that rote learning is not in fact the principal means upon which the Suzuki method relies.
|47.1.9 - Informal Learning|
|( P104 ) Informal learning is semi-structured and occurs in a variety of places, such as learning at home, work, and through daily interactions and shared relationships among members of society. For many learners this includes speech acquisition, cultural norms and manners. Informal learning for young people is an ongoing process that also occurs in a variety of places, such as out of school time, as well as in youth programs and at community centers.
In the context of corporate training and education, the term Informal Learning is widely used to describe the many forms of learning that takes place independently from instructor-led programs: books, self-study programs, performance support materials and systems, coaching, communities of practice, and expert directories.
Informal learning can be characterized as follows:
It often takes place outside educational establishments standing out from normal life and professional practice;
It does not necessarily follow a specified curriculum and is not often professionally organized but rather originates accidentally, sporadically, in association with certain occasions, from changing practical requirements;
It is not necessarily planned pedagogically conscious, systematically according to subjects, test and qualification-oriented, but rather unconsciously incidental, holistically problem-related, and related to situation management and fitness for life;
It is experienced directly in its "natural" function of everyday life.
In international discussions, the concept of informal learning, already used by John Dewey at an early stage and later on by Malcolm Knowles, experienced a renaissance, especially in the context of development policy. At first, informal learning was only delimited from formal school learning and nonformal learning in courses (Coombs/Achmed 1974). Marsick and Watkins take up this approach and go one step further in their definition. They, too, begin with the organizational form of learning and call those learning processes informal which are non-formal or not formally organized and are not financed by institutions (Watkins/Marsick, p. 12 et sec.). An example for a wider approach is Livingstone's definition which is oriented towards auto didactic and self-directed learning and places special emphasis on the self-definition of the learning process by the learner (Livingstone 1999, p. 68 et seq.).
Merriam and others (2007) state: "Informal learning, Schugurensky (2000) suggests, has its own internal forms that are important to distinguish in studying the phenomenom. He proposes three forms: self-directed learning, incidental learning, and socialization, or tacit learning. These differ among themselves in terms of intentionality and awareness at the time of the learning experience. Self-directed learning, for example, is intentional and conscious; incidental learning, which Marsick and Watkins (1990) describe as an accidental by-product of doing something else, is unintentional but after the experience she or he becomes aware that some learning has taken place; and finally, socialization or tacit learning is neither intentional nor conscious (although we can become aware of this learning later through "retrospective recognition") (Marsick & Watkins, 1990,p.6)' (p.36).
Formal and Non-formal Education
To fully understand informal learning it is useful to define the terms "formal" and "non-formal" education. Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner (2007), state: "Formal education is highly institutionalized, bureaucratic, curriculum driven, and formally recognized with grades, diplomas, or certificates" (p.29). Merriam and others (2007), also state: "The term non-formal has been used most often to describe organized learning outside of the formal education system. These offerings tend to be short-term, voluntary, and have few if any prerequisites. However they typically have a curriculm and often a facilitator" (p.30).
Research and Data
Merriam and others (2007) state: "studies of informal learning, especially those asking about adults'self-dircted learning projects, reveal that upwards of 90 percent of adults are engaged in hundreds of hours of informal learning. It has also been estimated that the great majority (upwards of 70 percent) of learning in the workplace is informal (Kim, Collins, Hagedorn, Williamson, & Chapman, 2004), although billions of dollars each year are spent by business and industry on formal training programs" (p.35-36).
Informal Learning Experiences
Informal learning is what happens when knowledge has not been externalized or captured and exists only inside someone’s head. To get at the knowledge, you must locate and talk to that person. Examples of such informal knowledge transfer include instant messaging, a spontaneous meeting on the Internet, a phone call to someone who has information you need, a live one-time-only sales meeting introducing a new product, a chat-room in real time, a chance meeting by the water cooler, a scheduled Web-based meeting with a real-time agenda, a tech walking you through a repair process, or a meeting with your assigned mentor or manager.
Experience indicates that almost all real learning for performance is informal (The Institute for Research on Learning, 2000, Menlo Park), and the people from whom we learn informally are usually present in real time. We all need that kind of access to an expert who can answer our questions and with whom we can play with the learning, practice, make mistakes, and practice some more. It can take place over the telephone or through the Internet, as well as in person. Informal access is not built into the formal learning process, the chances of getting past knowing to doing will be difficult at best.
A study of time-to-performance done by Sally Anne Moore at Digital Equipment Corporation in the early 1990s, (Moore, Sally-Ann, "Time-to-Learning", Digital Equipment Corporation, 1998) graphically shows this disparity between formal and informal learning.
Examples of Informal Learning
To illustrate the difference between formal and informal learning, consider the game of golf. If you want to learn to play golf, you can go to a seminar, read a book about the history and etiquette of golf, watch a videotape of great golfing moments, and then you can say you know something about golf. But have you really learned to play golf? You can then buy and enjoy a great e-golf game, find a golf pro, take lessons, take a simulated swing on a simulated golf course, practice putting, slice and dice balls at the driving range all weekend. After all this, you think you can do it, but have you really learned to play golf?
From your first tee shot on your first hole, it takes hours of adopting and adapting, alone and in a foursome, in all sorts of weather and conditions. You discover what you know and can do, swing all the clubs, ask all sorts of questions, fail and succeed, practice and practice some more, before you have really learned to play golf. Real learning, then, is the state of being able to adopt and adapt what you know and can do—what you have acquired through formal learning—under a varying set of informal circumstances. As shown in the above graph, it accounts for about 75 percent of the learning curve.
The majority of companies that provide training are currently involved only with the formal side of the continuum. Most of today’s investments are on the formal side. The net result is that companies spend the most money on the smallest part - 25% - of the learning equation. The other 75 percent of learning happens as the learner creatively adopts and adapts to ever changing circumstances. The informal piece of the equation is not only larger, it’s crucial to learning how to do anything.
In terms of learning in the workplace, where everything is focused on performance and performance is everything, the informal element of learning needs to be factored into the equation for any real learning to take place. Companies need to add those accidental, informal intersections of learning and performance into the process. They need to understand that the informal side of the equation requires real people in real time: mentors, coaches, masters, guides, power users, subject-matter experts, communities of practice. What needs to happen is that companies and schools need to foster informal moments of knowledge transfer. One way to accomplish this is to create collaborative learning environments, where the formal and informal learning are seamlessly knit together. Technology can also be used to facilitate the informal as well as the formal transfer of knowledge by including expert locators, e-mail connections with instructors, real-time Internet meeting places, virtual-learning support groups, instant messaging, expert networks, mentor and coaching networks, personal e-learning portals, moderated chats, and more. The goal would be to create the 100 percent learning solution, in which the proscribed formal learning events and the serendipitous learning moments are given equal value.
|47.1.10 - Formal Learning|
|( P105 ) Education is the learning of knowledge, information and skills during the course of life. Teachers may draw on many subjects, including reading, writing, mathematics, science and history. Teachers in specialized professions such as astrophysics, law, or zoology may teach only a certain subject, usually as professors at institutions of higher learning. There is much specialist instruction in fields for those who want specific skills, such as required to be a pilot, for example. Finally, there is an array of educational opportunity at the informal level- such as with museums, libraries and the Internet. Informal education also includes knowledge and skills learned during the course of life, including education that comes from experience.
There has been a great deal of work on learning styles over the last two decades. Dunn and Dunn focused on identifying relevant stimuli that may influence learning and manipulating the school environment, at about the same time as Joseph Renzulli recommended varying teaching strategies. Howard Gardner identified individual talents or aptitudes in his Multiple Intelligences theories. Based on the works of Jung, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Keirsey Temperament Sorter focused on understanding how people's personality affects the way they interact personally, and how this affects the way individuals respond to each other within the learning environment. The work of David Kolb and Anthony Gregorc's Type Delineator follows a similar but more simplified approach.
It is currently fashionable to divide education into different learning "modes". The learning modalities are probably the most common:
Kinesthetic: learning based on hands-on work and engaging in activities.
Visual: learning based on observation and seeing what is being learned.
Auditory: learning based on listening to instructions/information.
It is claimed that, depending on their preferred learning modality, different teaching techniques have different levels of effectiveness. A consequence of this theory is that effective teaching should present a variety of teaching methods which cover all three learning modalities so that different students have equal opportunities to learn in a way that is effective for them.
Teachers need the ability to understand a subject well enough to convey its essence to a new generation of students. The goal is to establish a sound knowledge base on which students will be able to build as they are exposed to different life experiences. The passing of knowledge from generation to generation allows students to grow into useful members of society. Good teachers can translate information, good judgment, experience and wisdom into relevant knowledge that a student can understand, retain and pass to others. Studies from the US suggest that the quality of teachers is the single most important factor affecting student performance, and that countries which score highly on international tests have multiple policies in place to ensure that the teachers they employ are as effective as possible. 
Learning is a process you do, not a process that is done to you
Main article: Sudbury model
Some critics of today's schools, of the concept of learning disabilities, of special education, and of response to intervention, take the position that every child has a different learning style and pace and that each child is unique, not only capable of learning but also capable of succeeding.
Sudbury model of democratic education schools assert that there are many ways to study and learn. They argue that learning is a process you do, not a process that is done to you.  The experience of Sudbury model democratic schools shows that there are many ways to learn without the intervention of teaching, to say, without the intervention of a teacher being imperative. In the case of reading for instance in the Sudbury model democratic schools some children learn from being read to, memorizing the stories and then ultimately reading them. Others learn from cereal boxes, others from games instructions, others from street signs. Some teach themselves letter sounds, others syllables, others whole words. Sudbury model democratic schools adduce that in their schools no one child has ever been forced, pushed, urged, cajoled, or bribed into learning how to read or write, and they have had no dyslexia. None of their graduates are real or functional illiterates, and no one who meets their older students could ever guess the age at which they first learned to read or write. In a similar form students learn all the subjects, techniques and skills in these schools.
Describing current instructional methods as homogenization and lockstep standardization, alternative approaches are proposed, such as the Sudbury model of democratic education schools, an alternative approach in which children, by enjoying personal freedom thus encouraged to exercise personal responsibility for their actions, learn at their own pace and style rather than following a compulsory and chronologically-based curriculum. Proponents of unschooling have also claimed that children raised in this method learn at their own pace and style, and do not suffer from learning disabilities.
|47.1.11 - Nonformal Learning|
|( P106 ) Non formal learning is a distinction in learning between formal and informal learning. It is learning that occurs in a formal learning environment, but that is not formally recognised. It is typically workshops, community courses, interest based courses, short courses, or conference style seminars. The learning takes place in a formal setting such as an educational organisation, but is not formally recognised within a curriculum or syllabus framework
Formal education organisations are increasingly recognising non formal learning in assessment processes such as recognition of prior learning, or recognition of informal learning.
Non-formal learning and combined approaches
The educational system may use a combination of formal, informal, and non-formal learning methods. The UN and EU recognize these different forms of learning (cf. links below). In some schools students can get points that count in the formal-learning systems if they get work done in informal-learning circuits. They may be given time to assist international youth workshops and training courses, on the condition they prepare, contribute, share and can proof this offered valuable new insights, helped to acquire new skills, a place to get experience in organizing, teaching, etc.
In order to learn a skill, such as solving a Rubik's cube quickly, several factors come into play at once:
Directions help one learn the patterns of solving a Rubik's cube
Practicing the moves repeatedly and for extended time helps with "muscle memory" and therefore speed
Thinking critically about moves helps find shortcuts, which in turn helps to speed up future attempts.
The Rubik's cube's six colors help anchor solving it within the head.
Occasionally revisiting the cube helps prevent negative learning or loss of skill
|47.1.12 - Tangential Learning|
|( P107 ) Tangential Learning is the process by which some portion of people will self-educate if a topic is exposed to them in something that they already enjoy. |
|47.1.13 - Sequence Learning|
|( P108 ) Serial organization is fundamental to human behaviour. Most of our day-to-day activities involve sequencing of actions to achieve a desired goal, from sequencing words to form a sentence, to driving an automobile or following directions on a roadmap, to making a recipe following instructions in a cooking manual (see Sun and Giles 2001). Lashley (1951) has highlighted the ubiquity of sequentiality or serial order in our behaviour
“ ... the coordination of leg movements in insects, the song of birds, the control of trotting and pacing in a gaited horse, the rat running the maze, the architect designing a house, the carpenter sawing a board present a problem of sequences of action ... ”
In a classic experiment, Yarbus (1967) demonstrated that though the subjects viewing portraits report to apprehend the portrait as a whole, their eye movements successively fixated at the most informative parts of the image. These observations suggest that underlying an apparently parallel process of face perception, a serial oculomotor process is concealed. It is a common observation that when a skill is being acquired, we are more attentive in the initial phase, but after repeated practice, the skill becomes nearly automatic (Fitts, 1964), this is also known as unconscious competence. We can then concentrate on learning a new action while performing previously learned actions skillfully. Thus it appears that a neural code or representation for the learnt skill is created in our brain, which is usually called procedural memory. The procedural memory encodes procedures or algorithms rather than facts.
There are many other areas of application for sequence learning. Research work on sequence learning has been going on in several disciplines such as artificial intelligence, neural networks, cognitive science (sequence learning aspects in skill acquisition), and engineering. How humans learn sequential procedures has been a long-standing research problem in cognitive science and currently is a major topic in neuroscience.
|47.2 - Learning / Memory Techniques|
|47.2.1 - Repetition|
|( P109 ) Repetition is an means by which any other memory method can be made more effective. The more learning cycles our brains are exposed to, the stonger the neural connections and the memory. |
|( P110 ) Practical Eg: If you spell a word wrong, hand-write it 100 times while spelling and saying it verbally. |
|47.2.2 - Origional Awareness|
|( P111 ) The Origional Awareness concept has been proposed to be part of the reason why older adults may have a hard time remembering the details of last week's dinner or last weekend's play, but a young child would easily remember those same events. It is easier for the child since the events were more origional and unique to them whereas to the older person, they were but of a much large lifetime experience consisting of countless similar events. |
|( P112 ) The Origional Awareness concept is the reason why more outlandish, unusual, or weird connections or visualizations are easier to remember in general. Our brain notices and remembers novel, unique events and concepts better than common, previously encountered ones, so to improve our memory of an event/link/association/concept/anything we should make it as origional as possible. |
|47.2.3 - Chunking|
|126.96.36.199 - The Human Mind Can Hold Only About 7 Elements in Thought at Once|
|188.8.131.52 - Chunking is the condensation of a whole series, sequence, list, or group as a single unit.|
|( P113 ) If you had to remember a 3 digit number, you could. It would be easiest if that number (those 3 digits together) meant somehting to you besides the numerical-number which it also does and which you are trying to remember. Examples of 3 digit numbers that you could Recognize (chunk) and remember rather easily: your area code and local exchanges, 123, 666, 404, 911, etc. |
|( P114 ) The more and larger repeating patterns you can identify in information, the easier it will be to remember. To remember numbers better, try to associate as many numbers to personal meanings as you can. Your final associations are best made personally as no assigned lookup list would work equally well for different people. Start with 1 digit number, then all 2 digit, then 3, etc. |
|47.2.4 - Connections|
|184.108.40.206 - The More you Know the More you can Learn|
|( P115 ) It's easier to remember a person's name if it a name you already know. If its the same as your own name, that would be easiest, but if it's the same as a good friend or family member or any name you are already Very vamiliar with you will remember it. Hardest are names we have never encountered before, especially if of a foreign language. |
|47.2.5 - Visualization|
|( P116 ) Visualization in itself is not really a technique or method. We have multile memory types, and for normal 'memory' (take in to spit back) applications we primairily use verbal/hearing or visual. Many memory techniques such as lists can be implemented with either verbal associations (Monkey-King) between links or visual ones (image of a monkey in throne with crown, cape, & septor). |
|47.2.6 - Verbalization - Mnemonic|
|( P117 ) A mnemonic device is a memory aid. Commonly met mnemonics are often verbal, something such as a very short poem or a special word used to help a person remember something, particularly lists, but may be visual, kinesthetic or auditory. Mnemonics rely on associations between easy-to-remember constructs which can be related back to the data that is to be remembered. This is based on the principle that the human mind much more easily remembers spatial, personal, surprising, sexual or humorous or otherwise meaningful information than arbitrary sequences. |
|220.127.116.11 - Acronyms, Initialisms, and Alphabetisms |
|( P118 ) Eg. ROYGBIV - Roy G. Biv is a mnemonic acronym for the sequence of hues in the visible spectrum, in rainbows, and in order from longest to shortest wavelength: Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet |
|18.104.22.168 - Songs, Rhymes, & Jingles|
|( P119 ) Mnemonic Jingles often loose their catchyness in writing, but one element that shines through is the chunking. If you think of the way we learn our ABC's, the song or rhyme, which is nothing more than the letters themselves with an optiona 'now i know my ..' at the end, it distinctly groups letters: ABCD EFG HIJK LMNOP ...
Even the Month-length nemonic uses pauses of phrasing and added melody as the crucial elements, otherwise it remains a factual list that becomes memorable once sung instead of said.
|( P120 ) Eg. 30 days has September, April, ....
Eg. ABCD EFG HIJK LMNOP QRS TUV WX Y&Z .. now I know my ..
Eg. H,He,Li,Be,Bo, C,N,O,F,Ne,
Eg. Alpha,Beta,Gamma,Delta Iota,Kapa,Lamda,Mu, Nu,Xsi,Omachron,Pi, Eta,Theta,,Omega
|( P121 ) Rhymes, Poetry, & Verse |
|47.2.7 - Chains|
|( P122 ) Chains and Lists allow one to remember many smaller sequences or pairs rather than the whole of the list. By transversing the chain, the whole list can still be retrieved, but it's nature has been made more serial, more of a sequence. |
|22.214.171.124 - Link System|
|( P123 ) Linking items in lists is best done using origional and unusual relations. E.g. to remember eggs, batteries, chicken, and tomatos think of a battery powered chicken laying tomato-eggs |
|47.2.8 - Roman Room|
|( P124 ) The Roman Room is a specific style of visualization that was very popular in the antient world, hence the name. The Roman Room system had the user visualize a room in their home where ther visualized objects from a list to be remembered. To remember the list, they went around the room rememebrign what they associated with and visualized in various parts of it. |
|47.2.9 - Numbers to Letters to Words|
|( P125 ) By associationg each digit with a few possible letters, you will have many possilbe words that start with those letters that you can use to create an acronym to remember the number. |
|( P126 ) Possible Digit -> Letter Associations:
0: o q g
1: i j l
2: u v n
3: e m t
4: h x
5: k d
7: s r
8: a f
9: p n w y z
Using this list to remember 215-346-7890 could be:
Non- Leaking Ducts Emit Harsh Caustics Since All Politicians Gag
|47.2.10 - A Place for Everything, and Everything in It's Place|
|47.2.11 - Turn your question around. Look to the Future, not the Past.|
|( P127 ) Instead of asking 'where did I put ...', pretend you have the item and need a place to put it: ask 'where should I put ...'.
The basic premise here is that your mental-backtrack and simulation of where you might have placed it is likely to use different neural circuits than the forward-time thought of where should you put something and therefore come up with divergant answers. You are more likely to get the same answer if the questions posed are more similar.
|47.2.12 - Associations. If you can't remember something, think about surrounding events/items that you can.|
|( P128 ) Memorories are rarely lost. More often than not, we simply do not have good 'links' to them to access them. This is seen with childhood memories where language links to events/things may not have been established so we might never remember some early memoreis unless something else stimulates them like a smell, or a picture, etc.
The technique here is: by thinking/recalling/remembering all surrounding events/occurances/locations/items you will be stimulationg other memories that MAY link to the lost one and it will be more likely to 'come to you'.
This is the more expansive version of 'think of every place you had them before you lost them'. You should also think about who was there, what the room looked like, what you were thinking, etc. Reconstruct as much as possible.
|47.2.13 - String Around your Finger|
|( P129 ) This is a mehod popularly mentioned. The idea is that if you want to remember somthing that you are likely to forget, like an appointment, you can tie a string arround your finger as a reminder to yourself that you have to remember shomething.
There us danger with this technique. You might forget what it is you are supposed to remember, since it is only a string.
Also, after a long enough time, our nervous system adapts and ignores wht at first is odd: we dont feel a hat on our head after it has been so for a minute yet even do feel 'naked' that after just taken off for a while afterwards. Our nervous system monitors and notices and draws attention to changes, so a string or similar is only effective for short term reminders. This numbing to repeated exposures is how we can have a post-it-reminder somewhere visable for months, yet miss the note's meaning when the day comes. Thsi is where Origional Awareness can help.
|47.2.14 - Origional Awareness|
|( P130 ) Most of the time we only notice a change. Origional Awareness naturally occures when we encounter something new, and these experiences become memorable. If we can force ourselves to be Origionally aware even in subsequesnt exposures, by finding somethign new, unique, or different in them, we will be more likely to remember them. |
|( P131 ) Origional Awareness has been proposed as the reason why a young child remembers her first theater experience, whereas her grandfather with her may not, having seen hundreds and having them all blend together. Chances are the parts that he will remeber are the differences, particularly the most shocking and unexpected ones, which force Origional Awareness in him. |
|47.3 - Domains of Learning|
|( P132 ) The three domains of learning are:
Cognitive--such as learning to recall facts, to analyze, and to solve a problem;
Psychomotor--such as learning to perform the correct steps in a dance, learning to swim, learning to ride a bicycle, or drive a car;
Affective--such as learning how to like someone, "to hate sin", to love one's country (patriotism), to worship God, or to move on after a failed relationship.
These domains are not mutually exclusive. For example, in learning to play chess, the person will have to learn the rules of the game (cognitive domain); but he also has to learn how to set up the chess pieces on the chessboard and also how to properly hold and move a chess piece (psychomotor). Furthermore, later in the game the person may even learn to love the game itself, value its applications in life, and appreciate its history (affective domain).
|47.4 - Operant Conditioning|
CHAPTER 48 - AI and it's Self-Control
|47.5 - Remembering|
|47.5.1 - Control of our Mind and Memory|
|47.5.2 - Setting Reminders|
|126.96.36.199 - String Around our Finger, Rubber Band on Wrist|
|48.1 - Asimov's Laws|
|48.2 - Trusted to Follow Imposed Rules without Possible 3rd Party Oversight or Validation|
CHAPTER 49 - The Answer to Our Self-Control is in OUR Decisions Made
|48.3 - Evolution an Chaos|
|48.3.1 - Computer Simulations of Bio-Life have Already Evolved Parasite Code|
|188.8.131.52 - Parasitism of Replication Code|
CHAPTER 50 - Fate... Destiny.... God's Plan / God's Will Be Done....
|49.1 - Pre-planning and scenario running|
|49.1.1 - Set-it! and Forget-it!|
|184.108.40.206 - Triggers, Alarm Clocks, Way Markers, Landmarks|
|220.127.116.11 - last minute changes or deciding influence factors into decision formula|
|( P133 ) It's like out consciousness programs our reticular cortex or subconsciousness for later action. |
|49.1.2 - Alzheimer's and Decision Making|
|18.104.22.168 - One of the first symptoms of Alzheimer's is inability to make decisions. It starts so subtly that it is often not noticed, let alone identified as a symptom of anything.|
|49.1.3 - Lobotomy and Decision Making|
|49.1.4 - Changing your Decision|
|49.1.5 - accept and realize we are not in control and wish to become so|
|49.1.6 - Self Remembering (split attention) and self observation|
|22.214.171.124 - Intend all actions|
CHAPTER 51 - Where to go from here?
|51.1 - Possible experiments.|
|51.1.1 - Identifying Functions of Physiological Brain Areas/Structures|
|126.96.36.199 - Use State-of-the-art Brain Scanning Equiptment on a Variety of Advanced Meditators and Mind Control Experts|
|51.2 - Lines of Research.|
CHAPTER 52 - Seeing the Map as the means to be used to achieve your Goal, not as the Map itself.
|51.3 - Resources for further Study|
|52.1 - Do NOT mistake the vehicle for the cargo. - stealing wheelbarrows|
|52.1.1 - To control oneself, it is important to understand and use the methods available, however to only study the methods and to not use them all the time is ..|
|52.2 - Understanding the Tools for the sake of using them to escape from our Prison, not for the sake of understanding the Tools themselves.|
|52.3 - Many Modern-Day Researchers are Absorbed in Understanding Some Small Specific and do Not Look at the Whole into which it Intergrates|
|52.4 - Imagining and Fantasizing about Making Changes and Starting Exercises|
|52.4.1 - To know is one thing. To do, quite another.|
|188.8.131.52 - If you know eating unhealthily is self-destructive and you do so anyway, what do you really understand about what you know?|
CHAPTER 53 - Misc, Un-Placed Thoughts
|52.5 - Using excuses to self|
|53.1 - We just find ourelves doing it|
|53.2 - Fainiting / Possum / Deer in Headlights|
|53.3 - Sleep Paralasis|
|53.3.1 - Alien Abductions, Ferries, Goblins, & Ghost Spirits|
|53.4 - Corruption Exists in All Organizations|
|53.4.1 - More Transparency Needed to Ensure Public-Interests are Followed|
|53.5 - THC Effect - Saying the Opposite of What you Intend. Severest intoxication includes actually being certain you said the intended - meaning your recalled memory is of your intentions, not of reality.|
|53.6 - This behaviour was once served you in some way but that time is now over and it now needs to be discontinued.|
|( P134 ) Re: Music. Since were made of it, we have a right to learn and master it. - Jamie Novak |
1: 2012 - The Return of Quetzalcoatl, Pinchbeck, Daniel - ISBN:978-1-58542-592-1
2: Experimental Studies of Dreaming, Witkin, Herman A.;Lewis, Helen B. - ISBN:
3: Games People Play, Berne, Eric, M.D. - ISBN:
4: On Intelligence, Hawkins, Jeff - ISBN:978-0-8050-7853-4
5: The Naked Ape, Morris, Desmond - ISBN:
6: The Way of a Pilgrim and The Pilgrim Continues His Way, - ISBN:0-385-12400-7
Floating Document Elements
SECTION - Instinct  [delete] SECTION - Complex Set or Pattern of Actions without Conscious Though  [delete] SECTION - Next Building  [delete] SECTION - A Look at How Drugs Modify the Ego  [delete] SECTION - Testosterone  [delete] SECTION - Psychadelics  [delete]
Scratch Pad Document Elements
SECTION - Ego vs. Id.  [delete] SECTION - The Giants that walk before us, PRIDE & VANITY  [delete]